Pages 22 through 29 and chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pages 22 through 29 and chapter 4 Deck (37):
1

Filament, hook, basil body, embedded in the cell wall and plasma membrane, phosphorylation event causes motion, run and tumble, in gram negative bacteria

Flagellum

2

1) Specific for attachment to surfaces 2) specific for conjugation

Fimbriae or pili

3

1) carbohydrate backbone consists of nag and nam 2) anchor for flagella 3) structure of Peptidoglycan in gram positive bacteria 4) consists also of side chain and cross bridge amino acids

Cell wall

4

1) multilayer Peptidoglycan (thick) 2) outside a the Glycocalyx 3) outside Of the plasma membrane

Gram positive

5

1) E. Coli 2) plasma membrane/ Peptidoglycan and outer membrane (cell wall) 3) would release too many toxins if you used antibiotics

Gram negative

6

1) disrupts Peptidoglycan synthesis (fission) 2) without Peptidoglycan cell walls are weak, results in rupture and death

Penicillin used to destroy bacteria

7

1) produced by eukaryotes and bacteriophage 2) hydrolyses Peptidoglycan bonds 3) Weakened cell wall results in death 4) found in tears saliva and sweat

Lysozymes used to destroy bacteria

8

1) etc location2) encloses cytoplasm 3) semipermeable depending on size, hydrophobicity, concentration gradient 4) enzymes for Atp embedded in membrane

Plasma membrane

9

1) Outermost covering of bacteria 2) excreted from inside the cell 3)slime layer (loose organization) 3) protects Bactria from host immune system

Glycocalyx

10

The passive movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration To lower concentration

Diffusion

11

Diffusion of water

Osmosis

12

The pressure required to hold water back

Osmotic Pressure

13

Same salt concentration, no net movement of water

Isotonic

14

Lower salt concentration, net movement of water into a cell

Hypotonic

15

Higher salt Concentration, net movement of water into a cell

Hypertonic

16

Requires expenditure of energy, moves substance against it's concentration gradient, relies upon transport proteins in the plasma membrane

Active transport

17

1) exclusive to prokaryotes 2) substance is altered as it is transported across a membrane 3) alteration prevents passage back through the plasma membrane 4) example: glucose is phosphorylated so g-p can not pass back through the membrane 5) allows cells to sequester glucose in the cell

Group translocation

18

Fluid held within the plasma membrane, 80% water other 20% proteins, carbohydrates and lipids

Cytoplasm

19

No nucleus in prokaryotes, double stranded DNA circular chromosome), super coiled chromosome is attached to the plasma membrane at a single point

Nuclear area

20

Extra-chromosomal DNA, self regulating and self replicating, not required for survival, location of drug resistance, transferable

Plasmids

21

2 subunits of protein and rRNA, protein synthesis, 30s+50s combine to form 70s ribosome. In eukaryotes 80s ribosomes except for Mitochondria and chloroplasts (which are 70s)

Ribosomes

22

Streptomycin - gentamicin attack the 30s subunit
Erythromycin - chloramphenicol attack the 50s subunit

Antibiotics developed to disrupt prokaryotic protien synthesis

23

Storage areas in prokaryotes

Inclusions

24

Obligate anerobes, formed during stress, sporulation Results in formation of dehydrated cells with thick protective layer; resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation toxins, good for eons, spores germinate into the vegetative form of the organism

Endospores

25

Command center, surrounded by nuclear membrane, chromosome location, nucleopores allow for transporting

Nucleus

26

Dark staining region of nucleus, high concentration of RNA and ribosome RNA subunits are synthesized here, subunits are transported (via nucleopores) to and are combined in the cytoplasm

Nucleolus

27

Protein synthesis for the cell, consists of large and small subunit, located in the plasma or are bound to the endoplasmic reticulum,

Ribosomes

28

Series of channels and tubes interconnected within the cytoplasm, surface is the site of carbohydrate and lipid synthesis, has ribosomes attached for synthesis of proteins for export (rough er) no ribosomes but involved in fats and steroids, detoxify drugs in liver (Smooth er)

Endoplasmic reticulum

29

Collection, packaging and distribution of materials through the cell. Receives materials from the er. Cisternae are special folds at the end of the Golgi bodies. Vesicles are formed by pinching off at the cisternae. Vesicles go to different areas of the cell or fuse with the plasma membrane to dump their contents outside of the cell.

Gigi apparatus

30

Vesicles that contain enzymes that break down macromolecules. Fuse with endocytotic vesicles to break down what the cell engulfs, formed from the Golgi

Lysosomes

31

Smaller (than lysosomes) vesicles that detoxify eukaryotic cells, enzymes are received from free ribosomes which convert fats to carbohydrates, have catalase which breaks down h2o2

Peroxisomes

32

Energy production for the cell, atp is produced here, double cell membrane: a folded inner membrane and an outer membrane, contains it's own DNA, crisTae provide surface area for reactions to take place

Mitochondria

33

Each cell has a pair, these assemble microtubules which provide structural support, involved in cell division, 9 + 0 array

Centrioles

34

Found in plants and algae, photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplast's thylakoids, stacks granna (filled with stroma), they have this down DNA, larger than mitochondria

Chloroplasts

35

Cillia and flagella, organization of microtubules, cilia are short and numerous, create movement by beating in a coordinated manner, flagella are few in # and create movement by whipping action

Cell mobility and motility

36

Plants, space In The cytoplasm

Vacuoles

37

Host nucleoplasm supplied nutrients and the endosymbiotic bacterium produced energy that could be used by nucleoplasm 1)mitochondria and chloroplasts resemble bacteria In Size and shape 2) they contain circular DNA 3) they reproduce independently of their hosts 4) their ribosomes resemble those of prokaryotes 5) same antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis in bacteria inhibit protein synthesis on ribosomes in mitochondria and chloroplasts

Endosymbiotic theory