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Flashcards in Pages 30 Through..... Deck (69):
1

Not always present, carbohydrate – protein complex, coded for by viral genes, antigenic (Stimulate production of host antibodies), readily undergo mutation changing the structure of the _________ so no longer recognizable by previously made antibodies.

Spikes

2

Rabies, ebOla hemorrhagic fever

Examples of helical virus

3

Nucleic acid type, method of replication, morphology.

Viral Taxonomy

4

Lytic cycle, lysogenic cycle

Bacteriophage

5

Virus enters bacteria, viral replication, lyse host bacteria.

Lytic cycle

6

Virus enters bacteria, viral genome integrated into bacterial chromosome, remains a part of bacteria until lytic cycle resumed

Lysogenic cycle

7

Not always present, external to capsid, lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates, sometimes formed by a host plasma membrane.

Envelope

8

Infect E. coli, follows lytic lifecycle, attachment to receptor on E. coli via tail fibers, penetration (uses lysozyme to we can so wall), biosynthesis, maturation, release.

T even bacteriophages

9

Early genes in code proteins for phage production, late genes and code capsid proteins. Eclipse period – No complete phage present just phage parts.

T even bacteriophages biosynthesis

10

Said, DNA, sheath, tail fibers, pin, baseplate, lysozymes.

Bacteriophage parts

11

Lambda phage, step one phage injects DNA, step two phage DNA circularizes and enters lytic cycle or lysogenic cycle, step three DNA and proteins are assembled into verions, step four cell lysis releasing phage virions

Lytic cycle

12

Lambda phage, step one phage injects DNA, step two DNA circularizes and enters lysogenic cycle, step three phage DNA integrates with bacterial chromosome by recombination becoming a prophage, step for lysogenic bacterium reproduces normally. Excision of prophage (following stress) virus enters the lytic cycle.

Lysogenic cycle

13

Step one prophage exists in host cell, step two phage genome excises carrying with it adjacent gene from host, step three phage matures and cell lyses releasing phage carrying host gene, step for phage infects cell, step five prophage and host DNA become integrated into new host DNA, step six lysogenic cell can metabolize galactose.

Specialized transduction

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Proteins and glycoproteins on host cell, penetration results in capsid on inside of host cell, endocytosis, fusion with plasma membrane, uncoating, removal of protein coat from viral nucleic acid.

Animal viruses

15

Viral proteins replicate viral DNA in host nucleus, viral capsids are produced in the cytoplasm, capsid and proteins are transported to the nucleus, verion is constructed, verion transported to cell membrane by endoplasmic reticulum- Golgi membrane- release

DNA viruses

16

Lysogenized host cells have been implicated in cancer

Papovavirus

17

Buying two enzyme at some other location other than the active site.causes alteration in the shape of the enzyme which results in an activation of the enzyme. Mercury is an example.

Noncompetitive inhibitior

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Chemicals compete with substrates for the binding site on an enzyme.
Resemble substrates but cannot be converted into product. Reversible or irreversible.

Competitive inhibition

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Sulfa drugs compete for binding of enzyme in folic acid biosynthesis. Bacterial growth is inhibited due to blocked pathway. Humans do not have the folic acid biosynthetic pathway.

How sulfa drugs work/ competitive inhibition

20

Protein catalyst. Reduces the activation energy required for the reaction. Not altered by the reaction. Increases the rate of the reaction. Specific to a particular reaction. Active site for substrate binding. Mediated by substrate concentration.

Enzymes

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Non-protein component of enzymes required by some

Cofactors

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NaDh, FADH, shuttle electrons

Coenzymes

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Maximum conversion of substrate to product. When all enzymes are bound to substrate.

Maximum velocity of the enzyme

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PH, temperature, salt concentrations, cofactor availability.

What alters enzyme function (shape, bending bonds)

25

Energy source comes from chemicals, chemotrophs. Carbon source? Organic compounds. Final electronic exceptor 02. Animals fungi protozoa bacteria

Chemoheterotroph

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Chemoheterotroph. Final electronic acceptor not O2.

Organic compound or inorganic compound.

Fermentation or electron transport chain.

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Energy source, light, phototrophs, carbon source, CO2, photoautotroph, uses H2O to reduce CO2, oxygenic photosynthesis

Plants algae cyanobacteria

28

Induces chromosome alteration. Remove the piece of # 8 to the end of #14, translocations. Interferes with cell death. Causes Burkitt's lymphoma.

Epstein-Barr virus

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Inserts viral genome into host chromosome. Overrides cell cycle control. Found in cervical cancer us.

HPV – human papillomavirus

30

Caused by insertional mutation of RNA virus

T-cell leukemia

31

Mostly from rna retroviruses (viral DNA synthesized from viral RNA). Viral DNA inserts into host chromosome. May carry oncogenes in viral genome insertion may trigger host proto-oncogenes

Viruses and cancer

32

Viruses use existing host cell biology for their own replication. Attacking these functions will have a negative impact on host.

Antiviral medications

33

Really only effective method of dealing with viruses. Prevention not cure.

Vaccines

34

Bar viral penetration. Bar transcription and translation. Prevent viral maturation.

Antiviral drug therapy targets

35

Interferes with the viruses ability to bind to receptors on the outside surface of the cell it tries to enter

Entry inhibitor

36

Interfere with the viruses ability to fuse with the cellular membrane preventing virus from entering a cell.

Fusion inhibitors

37

Prevent the hiv enzyme reverse transcriptase from converting single-stranded HIV RNA into a double-stranded HIV DNA

Reverse transcriptase inhibitors

38

When a faulty building block is added to a growing HIV DNA chain no further correct dna building blocks can be added halting HIV DNA synthesis

Nucleside/nucleotide RT inhibitors are faulty building blocks for DNA

39

Bind to RT, interfering with its ability to convert HIV RNA into HIV DNA.

Non-nucleoside RT inhibitors

40

Block the HIV enzyme intgrase which the virus uses to integrate it's genetic material into the DNA of the cell it has infected

Integrase inhibitors

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Interfere with the HIV enzyme called protease which cut HIV proteins into smaller individual proteins. Nip and tuck proteins will affect all cells.

Protease inhibitors

42

One pill

Combination drugs

43

Retrovirus, acquired by intimate contact, parenteral, invades T helper lymphocytes, attaches to Cd4 proteins on T cell surface. Reverse transcriptase is used in viral replication

HIV/AIDS

44

HIV replication

See diagram in book

45

25% of those infected will clear the virus on their own. Shows that The immune system is capable of mounting effective response, five years from a vaccine harvoni 90% cure rate

Hepatitis C

46

Inflammation of the liver, the most common cause of liver cancer, a B and C are common types, D requires prior infection by b

Hepatitis

47

Single-stranded RNA a virus, vaccine available

Hepatitis a

48

DN a virus Parenteral, intimate contact, chronic liver disease, vaccine

Hepatitis B

49

Single-stranded RNA a virus, parenteral chronic liver disease, no vaccine.

Hepatitis C

50

Latent virus you never get rid of reemerges from the nervous system (support cells and nerves) Symplex is cold sores, Vericella virus chickenpox, lymphocrypto virus mononucleosis, Roseolovirus roseola, reemergence doing due to immunosuppression stress UV radiation hormonal shifts.

Herpes

51

Spikes attach to receptors, anti-sense RNA virus makes positive RNA to make proteins, genes for spikes mutate easily and often

Influenza

52

Injection of blood or bodily fluids, needlesticks, sharing needles.

Parenteral

53

+ sense strands function as messenger RNA, can translate proteins directly from the strands, most encode proteins which repress host RNA polymerase, RNA dependent RNA polymerase

RNA viruses

54

Synthesizes the compliment strand of RNA, if reading the plus strand, makes the minus sense strand

Rna dependent RNA polymerase

55

All RNA synthesis and capsid protein synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm of the host cell, maturation – package viral RNA into capsid, release from host cell

RNA virus pathway

56

The capacity to do chemical work, transport work, mechanical work.

Energy

57

Entropy

Randomness

58

Endergonic

Requires energy
Change in G is greater than zero

59

Exergonic

Releases energy
Change in G is less than zero

60

Classes of chemical reactions

Redox reaction
Dehydrogenation reaction
Phosphorylation reaction

61

Redox reaction

One substrate is oxidized and the other is reduced

62

Oxidation

The loss of an electron from an Atom or molecule, often produces energy

63

The gain of an electron by an atom or molecule

Reduction

64

The removal of one proton/one electron. Most biological oxidations.

Dehydrogenation

65

Addition of a phosphate group. ATP is the energy Currency of cells.

Phosphorylation

66

ATP is usually generated when a high-energy phosphate is directly transferred from a phosphorylated compound (a substrate) to adp.

Substrate level phosphorylation

67

Pulls and electron

Oxidative phosphorylation

68

Electrons from photosynthetic pigments are excited to a higher level by light energy

Photophosphorylation

69

Assists enzymes by excepting hydrogen Adams that have been removed from a substrate. This energy can be used to generate ATP later reactions.

N a D +