Flashcards in Chapter 10: Launching the New Ship of State (1789-1800) Deck (28)
What was the Bill of Rights?
A popular term for the first 10 amendments of the US Constitution. The amendments secure the key rights for individuals and reserve the states all powers not explicitly delegated or prohibited by the Constitution.
What was the Judiciary Act of 1789?
Organized the federal legal system, establishing the Supreme Court, federal district and circuit courts, and the office of the attorney general.
What was funding at par?
Payments of debt, such as government bonds, at face value. In 1790, Hamilton proposed that the federal government pay its Revolutionary war debts in full in order to bolster the nation's credit.
What was assumption?
Transfer of debts from one party to another. In order to strengthen the union, the federal government assumed the states' Revolutionary War debs in 1790, tying the interests of wealthy leaders with the national government.
What was a tariff?
A tax levied on imports. Traditionally, manufacturers support tariffs as protective and revenue-raising measures, while agricultural interests, dependent on world markets, oppose high tariffs.
What was an excise tax?
Tax on domestically-produced goods. Excise taxes, particularly the 1791 tax on whiskey, were a highly controversial component of Hamilton's financial program.
What was the Bank of the United States?
It was chartered by Congress as part of Hamilton's financial program, the bank printed money and served as a depository to Treasury funds. It had opposition from Jeffersonian Republicans, who said the bank was unconstitutional.
What was the Whiskey Rebellion?
An uprising of Whiskey distillers in Pennsylvania in opposition of the excise tax on whiskey. Washington put down the rebellion with militia from several states.
What was the Reign of Terror?
the 10-month period of brutal repression when 40k people were executed in the French Revolution. While Jeffersonians kept faith in the French, Federalists withdrew support for France after the Reign of Terror.
What was the Neutrality Proclamation?
Proclaimed America's formal neutrality in France's escalating conflict with England, a statement that enraged French Jeffersonians.
What was the Battle of Fallen Timbers?
A decisive battle between the Miami confederacy and the US army. British soldiers refused to shelter routed Indians, forcing the latter to attain peace settlement with the US.
What was the Treaty of Greenville?
Miami Confederacy agreed to cede territory in the Old Northwest to the US in exchange for cash payment, hunting rights, and formal recognition of their sovereign statement.
What was Jay's Treaty?
Negotiated by John Jay to avoid war with Britain, included Britain promises to evacuate outposts on US soil and pay damages for seizure of American vessels, in exchange for payment of US' pre-Revolutionary debts and to abide by BRitain's reconstructive trading policies toward France.
What was Pinckney's Treaty?
Signed with Spanish which, fearing an Anglo-American alliance, granted Americans free navigation of the Mississippi and the disputed territory of Florida.
What was the Farewell Address?
Washington's Address at the end of his presidency, warning against "permanent alliances" with other nations.
What was the XYZ Affair?
A diplomatic conflict between France and the US when American envoys to France were asked to pay a hefty bribe to meet the French Minister. US called for war against France, while American sailors and privateers waged undeclared war against French merchants in the Caribbean.
What was the Convention of 1800?
Agreement to formally dissolve the French-American treaty, originally signed during the Revolutionary War.
What were Alien Laws?
Acts passed by Federalist Congress raising requirement for citizenship to 14 years and granting president the power to deport dangerous foreigners during times of peace.
What was the Sedition Act?
Enacted by Federalist Congress to clamp down on Jeffersonian opposition, the law made anyone defaming the government officials or interfering with government policy liable to imprisonment with heavy fine; expired in 1801.
What were the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions?
Statements secretly drafted by Jefferson and Madison for legislatures of Kentucky and Virginia. Argued that states were the final arbiters or whether the federal government had overstepped boundaries and could refuse to accept national legislation deemed unconstitutional.
Who was Alexander Hamilton?
A political leader who was the brightest and youngest of the Federalists, and became Secretary of Treasury in 1789; he established a plan for the economy in 1791 including tariffs passed in 1789, assumption of state debt in 1790, excise taxes and national bank in 1791. All these plans successfully dealt with national debt. He also founded the Federalist Party.
Who was Louis XVI?
The King of France between 1774 and 1792, who was overthrown and beheaded during the French Revolution.
Who was Edmond Genet?
French representative sent to the US who set out to take advantage of conflict. He began to recruit unauthorized American armies to takeover Spanish Florida, Louisiana, and parts of British Canada. Washington demanded his replacement with a more rational French Representative.
Who was Little Turtle?
Chief of the Miami people, one of the most famous Native American military leaders of the time. Led followers to several victories against US in 1790s during Northwest Indian Wars.
Who was "Mad Anthony" Wayne?
Led a new army in 1794, routing the Miamis at Battle of Fallen Timbers.
Who was John Jay?
Chief Justice who negotiated Jay's Treaty with France.
Who was John Adams?
A Federalist who became PResident in 1796, known for a tumultuous presidency in which he avoided war with France.