Flashcards in Chapter 8: America Secedes from the Empire (1775-1783) Deck (31)
What was the Second Continental Congress?
representative body of delegates from all 13 colonies. Drafted the Declaration of Independence and managed the colonial war effort.
What was the Battle of Bunker Hill?
fought on the outskirts of Boston, on Breed's Hill, the battle ended in the colonial militia's retreat, though at a heavy cost to the British.
What was the Olive Branch Petition?
conciliatory measure adopted by the Continental Congress, professing American loyalty and seeking an end to the hostilities. King George rejected the petition and proclaimed the colonies in rebellion.
Who were the Hessians?
German troops hired from their Princes by George III to aid in putting down the colonial insurrection. This hardened the resolve of American colonists, who resented the use of paid foreign fighters.
What is "Common Sense"?
Thomas Paine's pamphlet urging the colonies to declare independence and establish a republican government. The widely read pamphlet helped convince colonists to support the Revolution.
What was the Declaration of Independence?
Formal pronouncement of independence drafted by Thomas Jefferson and approved by Congress. The Declaration allowed to appeal for foreign aid and served as an inspiration for later revolutionary movements worldwide.
What was the Declaration of the Rights of Man?
Declaration of rights adopted during the French Revolution. Modeled after American Declaration of Independence.
Who were the Loyalists?
American colonists who opposed the Revolution and maintained their loyalty to the king, someone referred to as Tories.
Who were the Patriots?
American colonists who supported the American Revolution, also known as Whigs.
What was the Battle of Long Island?
Battle for the control of New York. British troops overwhelmed the colonial militias and retained control of the city for most of the war.
What was the Battle of Trenton?
Washington surprised and captured a garrison of sleeping German Hessians, raising the morale of his crestfallen army and setting the stage for his victory at Princeton a week later.
What was the Model Treaty?
a sample treaty drafted by the Continental Congress as a guide for American diplomats. Reflected American desire to foster commercial partnerships rather than political/military entanglements.
What was Armed Neutrality?
loose alliance of non belligerent naval power, organized by Russia's Catherine the Great, to protect neutral trading rights during the war for American independence.
What was the Treaty of Fort Stanwix?
treaty signed by the US and the pro-British Iroquois granting Ohio country to the Americans.
What were Privateers?
privately owned armed ships authorized by Congress to prey on enemy shipping during the Revolutionary War. More numerous than the tiny American navy, privateers inflicted heavy damage on British shippers.
What was the Battle of Yorktown?
Washington, with the aid of the French army, besieged Cornwallis at Yorktown, while the french naval fleet prevented British reinforcements from coming ashore. Cornwallis surrendered, dealing a heavy blow to the British war effort and paving the way for eventual peace.
What was the treaty of Paris?
peace treaty signed by Paris and the US ending the Revolutionary War. The British finally recognized American independence and ceded territory east of the Mississippi while the Americans, in turn, promised to restore Loyalist property and repay debts to British creditors.
Who was Ethan Allen?
along with Benedict Arnold, he was in charge of a tiny American force that surprised and captured the British garrisons at Ticonderoga and Crown Point in May 1775.
Who was Benedict Arnold?
alon with Ethan Allen, in charge of a tiny American force that captured British garrisons at Ticonderoga and Crown Point in May 1775. He also became a traitor to the Americans and went to the British.
Who was Richard Montgomery?
one invading column under this Irish-born general, formerly of the British army, pushed up the Lake Champion route and captured Montreal. He was joined at Quebec by the bedraggled army of General Benedict Arnold. The general was killed by the assault on Quebec on the last day of 1775 and Arnold was wounded in one leg.
Who was Thomas Paine?
wrote "Common Sense", began his incendiary tract with a treatise on the nature of government and eloquently anticipated Thomas Jefferson's declaration that only lawful states were those that derive "their powers from the consents of the governed". He convinced the American colonists to fight for independence, and drafted the Declaration of Independence, and of American foreign policy as well.
Who was Abigail Adams?
Wife of John Adams, chides her husband, raising her voice on behalf of women. She threatened to "foment" a rebellion.
Who was Richard Henry Lee?
Fiery person of Virginia, on July 7, 1776, moved that "these united colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states". His resolution was the formal "declaration" independence by the American colonies that was needed to cut British ties.
Who was Lord Charles Cornwallis?
He surrendered his entire force of 7000 men on October 18, 1781 at Yorktown.
Who was William Howe?
British army officer known for capturing Quebec in 1759.
Who was John Burgoyne?
Forced to surrender his entire command at Saratoga, October 17, 1777.
Who was Comte de Rochambeau?
Commanded powerful French army which arrived in Rhode Island, Newport, 1780.
Who was Nathanael Greene?
Quaker-reared tactician who exhausted his foe, Cornwallis, in vain pursuit. He finally succeeded in clearing most of Georgia and South Carolina of British troops.
Who was Joseph Brant?
Mohawk Chief who believed American expansion into the west, and urged other Indian tribes to join the British.