Flashcards in Chapter 2: The Planting of English America (1500-1733) Deck (18)
What was the Protestant Reformation?
A movement to reform the Catholic Church launched in Germany by Martin Luther. Reformers questioned the authority of the Pope, sought to eliminate the selling of indulgences, and encouraged the translation of the Bible from Latin, which few at the time could read. The Reformation was launched in England in the 1530's when King Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church.
What was Roanoke Island?
Sir Walter Raleigh's failed colonial settlement off the coast of North Carolina.
What was the Spanish Armada?
The Spanish fleet defeated in the English Channel in 1588. The defeat of the Armada marked the beginning of the decline of the Spanish Empire.
What was Primogeniture?
The legal principle that the oldest son inherits all family property or land. Landowners' younger sons, forced to seek their fortunes elsewhere, pioneered early exploration and settlement of the Americas,
What were Joint-Stock Companies?
Short term partnerships between multiple investors to fund a commercial enterprise; such arrangements were used to fund England's early colonial ventures.
What was the Virginia Company?
An English joint-stock company that received a charter from King James I that allowed it to found the Virginia Colony.
What is a Charter?
A legal document granted by the government to some group or agency to implement a stated purpose and spelling out the attending rights and obligations. British colonial charters guarantee inhabitants all the rights of ENglishmen, which helped solidify colonists ties to Britain during the early years of settlement.
What was Jamestown?
The first permanent English settlement in North America founded by the Virginia Company.
What was the First Anglo-Powhatan War?
A series of clashes between the Powhatan Confederacy and English settlers in Virginia. English colonists torched and pillaged Indian villages, applying tactics used in England's campaigns against the Irish.
What was the Second Anglo-Powhatan War?
The last ditch efforts by the Indians to dislodge Virginia's settlements. The resulting peace treaty formally separated white and Indian areas of settlement.
What was the House of Burgesses?
The representative parliamentary assembly created to govern Virginia, establishing a precedent for government in the English colonies.
What was the Act of Toleration?
Passed in Maryland, it guaranteed toleration to all Christians, but decreed the death penalty to those, like Jews and atheists, who denied the divinity of Jesus Christ. Ensured tha Maryland would continue to attract a high proportion of Catholic migrants, throughout the colonial period.
What was the Barbados Slave Code?
The first formal statute governing the treatments of slaves, which provided for harsh punishments against offending slaves but lacked penalties for the mistreatment of slaves by masters. Similar statutes were adopted by southern plantation societies on the North American mainland in the 17th and 18th centuries.
What were squatters?
Frontier farmers who illegally occupied land owned by others or not yet officially opened for settlement. MAny of North Carolina's early settlers were squatters, who contributed to the colonies reputation for being more independent-minded and democratic than its neighbors.
What was the Iroquois Confederacy?
Bound together 5 tribes- the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and the Senecas- in the Mohawk Valley of what is now New York State.
What was the Tuscarora War?
Began with an Indian attack on New Bern, North Carolina. After the Tuscaroras were defeated, remaining Indian survivors migrated northward, eventually joining the Iroquois Confederacy as its sixth nation.
Who were the Yamasee Indians?
A coastal tribe defeated by South Carolinians in the war of 1715-1716. The Yamasee defeat devastated the last of the coastal Indian tribes in the southern colonies.