Flashcards in Chapter 7: The Road to Revolution (1763-1775) Deck (33)
What is republicanism?
political theory of representative government based on the principle of popular sovereignty, with strong emphasis on liberty and civic virtue. Influential in 18th century American political thought, it stood as an alternative to monarchical rule.
Who were the Radical Whigs?
18th century British political commentators who agitated against political corruption and emphasized the threat to liberty posed by arbitrary power. Their writings shaped American political thoughts and made colonists especially alert to encroachment on their rights.
What was mercantilism?
Economic theory that closely lined a nation's political and military power to its bullion reserves. Mercantilists generally favored protectionism and colonial acquisition as measures to increase exports.
What was the Sugar Act?
Duty on imported sugar from the West Indies. It was the 1st tax levied on the colonists by the crown and was lowered substantially in response to widespread protests.
What was the Quartering Act?
required the colonists to provide food and quarters for British troops. Many colonists resented the act which they perceived as an encroachment on their rights.
What was the Stamp Tax?
widely unpopular tax on an array of paper goods, repealed after 1766 after mass protests erupted across the colonies. Colonists developed the principle of "no taxation without representation" that questioned Parliament's authority over the colonies and laid the foundation for future revolutionary claims.
What were Admiralty Courts?
used to try offenders for violating the Navigation Acts passed after the French and Indian War. Colonists argued that the courts encroached on their rights as Englishmen because they lacked juries and placed the burden of proof on the accused.
What was the Stamp Act Congress?
an assembly of delegates from 9 colonies who met in New York City to draft a petition for the repeal of the Stamp Act. Helped ease sectional suspicions and promote intercolonial unity.
What were the nonimportation agreements?
boycotts against British goods adopted in response to the Stamp Act and, later, the Townshend and Intolerable Acts. The agreements were the most effective form of protest against British policies in the colonies.
Who were the Sons of Liberty?
Patriotic groups that played a central role in agitating against the Stamp Act and enforcing nonimportation agreements.
Who were the Daughters of Liberty?
patriotic groups that played a central role in agitating against the Stamp Act and enforcing nonimportation agreements.
What was the Declaratory Act?
passed alongside the repeal of the Stamp Act, it reaffirmed parliament's unqualified sovereignty over the North American colonies.
What was the Townshend Act?
external, or indirect, levies on glass, white lead, paper, paint, and tea, the proceeds of which were used to pay colonial governors, who had previously been paid directly by colonial assemblies. Sparked another round of protests in the colonies.
What was the Boston Massacre?
clash between unruly protestors and locals stationed British redcoats, who fired on the jeering crowd, killing or wounding eleven citizens.
What were the Committees of Correspondence?
local committees established across Massachusetts, and later in each of the 13 colonies, to maintain colonial opposition to British policies through the exchange of letters and pamphlets.
What was the Boston Tea Party?
Rowdy protests against the British East India Company's newly acquired monopoly on the tea trade. Colonists disguised as Indians, dumped 342 chests of tea into the Boston Harbor, prompting harsh sanctions from British Parliament.
What were the Intolerable Acts?
a series of punitive measures passed in retaliation for the Boston Tea Party, closing the port of Boston, revoking a number of rights in the Massachusetts colonial charter, and expanding the Quartering Act to allow for the lodging of soldiers in private homes. In response, colonists convened the First Continental Congress and called for a complete boycott of British goods.
What was the Quebec Act?
Allowed French residents of Quebec to retain their traditional political and religious institutions, and extended the boundaries of the province southward to the Ohio River. Mistakenly perceived by the colonists to be part of Parliament's response to the Boston Tea Party.
What was the First Continental Congress?
convention of delegates from 12 of the 13 colonies that convened in Philadelphia to craft a response to the Intolerable Acts. Delegates established the Association, which called for a complete boycott of British goods.
What was The Association?
Nonimportation agreement created during the First Continental Congress, calling for a complete boycott of British goods.
What happened at Lexington and Concord?
the first battles of the Revolutionary War happened here, and were fought outside of Boston. The colonial militia successfully defended their stores of munitions, forcing the British to retreat to Boston.
What was Valley Forge?
an encampment where Washington's poorly equipped army spent a wretched, freezing winter. Hundreds of men died and more than a thousand deserted. The plight of the shivering, starving soldiers reflected the main weakness of the American Army, a lack of stable supplies and munitions.
Who were camp followers?
women and children who followed the Continental Army during the American Revolution, providing vital services such as cooking and sewing in return for rations.
Who was John Hancock?
an American patriot who served as President of the Second Continental Congress and 1st and 3rd governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
Who was George Grenville?
Prime Minister who aroused resentment of colonists in 1736 by strictly enforcing the Navigation Laws and securing the Sugar Act of 1764. He imposed the Stamp Act in 1765.
Who was Charles Townshend?
British political figure who took control of British ministry, and persuaded Parliament in 1767 to pass the Townshend Acts.
Who was Crispus Attucks?
1st to die in the Boston Massacre, described as a runaway "mulatto" and leaders of the mob.
Who was George III?
In 1770, he strenuously attempted to assert the power of the British monarchy.
Who was Lord North?
Prime minister of Great Britain 1770-1782 who led Britain through the American Revolutionary war.