Flashcards in Chapter 1: New World Beginnings (33000BCE-1769CE) Deck (18)
What was the Canadian Shield?
First part of the North American landmass to emerge above sea level.
Who were the Incas?
Highly advanced South American civilization that occupied present-day Peru until it was conquered by Spanish forces under Francisco Pizarro in 1532. The Incas developed sophisticated agricultural techniques, such as terrace farming, in order to sustain large, complex societies in the unforgiving Andes Mountains.
Who were the Aztecs?
Native American empire that controlled present-day Mexico until 1521, when they were conquered by Spanish Hernan Cortes. The Aztecs maintained control over their vast empire through a system of trade and tribute. They were known for their mathematics, writing, and use of human sacrifices in religious ceremonies.
What are nation-states?
societies in which political legitimacy and authority overlay a large degree of cultural commonality.
What was Cahokia?
Mississippian settlement near present-day East st. Louis, home to as many as 25,000 Native Americans.
What is three-sister farming?
agriculture system employed by North American Indians as early as 1000CE; maize, beans, and squash were grown together to maximize yields.
Who were middlemen?
In trading systems, those dealers who operate between the original producers of goods and the retail merchants who sell to consumers. After the 11th century, European exploration was driven in large part by a desire to acquire alluring Asian goods without paying heavy tolls to Muslim middlemen.
What was a caravel?
A small regular vessel with a high deck and three triangular sails. Caravels could sail more closely into the wind, allowing European sailors to explore the western shores of Africa, previously made inaccessible due to prevailing winds on the homeward journey.
What were plantations?
Large-scale agricultural enterprises growing commercial crops and usually employing coerced or slave labor. European settlers established plantations in Africa, South America, the Caribbean, and the American South.
What was the Columbian Exchange?
The transfer of goods, crops, and disease between the New and Old World. Spain received the bulk of territories in the Americas, compensating Portugal with titles to land in Africa and Asia.
What was the Encomienda system?
Spanish government's policy to "commend", or give, Indians to certain colonists in return for the promise to Christianize them. Part of a broader Spanish effort to subdue Indian tribes in the West Indies and on the North American mainland.
What was Noche Triste?
"Sad Night", when the Aztecs attacked Hernan Cortes and his forces in the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan, killing hundreds. Cortes laid siege to the city the following year, precipitating the fall of the Aztec empire, and inaugurating 3 centuries of Spanish rule.
What is capitalism?
Economic system characterized by private property, generally free trade, and open and accessible markets. European colonization of the Americans, and in particular, the discovery of cast deposits, helped bring about Europe's transition into capitalism.
Who were Mestizos?
People of mixed Indian and European heritage, notably in Mexico.
Who were conquistadors?
16th century Spaniards who fanned out across the Americas, from Colorado to Argentina, eventually conquering the Aztec and Incan empire.
What was the Battle of Acoma?
fought between Spaniards under Don Juan de Onate and the Pueblo Indians in present-day New Mexico. Spaniards brutally crushed the Pueblo people and established the territory as New Mexico in 1609.
What was Pope's Rebellion?
A Pueblo Indian Rebellion that drove Spanish settlers from New Mexico.