Chapter 11 - Corticosteroids Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 - Corticosteroids Deck (42)
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1

When would you use an intranasal aerosol corticosteroid?

Management of seasonal and perennial allergies and nonallergic rhinitis

2

What is the name of the group of chemicals released by the adrenal cortex?

Adrenal cortical hormones

3

What chemical does the outer zone of the adrenal cortex release?

Corticosteroids

4

What chemical does the inner zone of the adrenal cortex release?

Epinephrine

5

What are the three types of corticosteroid hormones?

Glucocorticoids (cortisol)

Mineralorticoids (aldosterone)

sex hormones (androgens & estrogen)

6

What does aldosterone do?

Regulates body water by increasing amount of sodium reabsorption in kidneys.

7

What is another term for analogs of cortisol used in pulmonary disease?

Hydrocortisone

8

What is the pathway for release and control of corticosteroids?

Hypothalamic-pituitary – adrenal axis

9

What hormone in the body stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids?

Adenocorticotropic hormone
(ACTH)

10

What are the main functions of glucocorticoids?

Metabolism of fats and carbohydrates

Glucose for body energy

lipolysis, redistribution of fat stores

breakdown of tissue protein

11

What is steroid diabetes?

Excessive amounts of glucose in plasma due to overuse of steroid therapy

12

What is HPA suppression?

Significant side effect of using corticosteroids

Adrenal suppression of endogenous glucocorticoids

13

What does the body not do, with regards to endogenous and exogenous corticosteroids?

It cannot distinguish between exogenous and endogenous glucorticoids

14

What is HPA suppression

When the body takes in too much exogenous cortisol that it doesn't feel the need to create its own.

15

What is a good way to minimize HPA suppression?

By using aerosolized glucocorticoids and localizing the treatment to the lungs

16

What do you need to do when a patient is on oral corticosteroids and HPA suppression occurs?

We need to wean them off in order to let the body create its own again.

17

What are the clinical indications for use orally inhaled corticosteroids?

-Maintenance, controlled therapy of chronic asthma, (identified as needing step 2 asthma care)

- can be used with systemic corticosteroids to reduce systemic dose or elimination for asthma control

18

When are endogenous coritsol levels the highest?

In the morning

19

What stops the production of endogenous glucocorticoids and ACTH?

High levels of cortisol in blood plasma because of the feedback mechanism.

20

What is alternate days steroid therapy?

Giving steroid drugs that alternate days in the morning to avoid HPA system suppression

21

What are the four major categories of inflammation activity?

Increased vascular permeability

Leukocytic infiltration

Phagocytosis

Mediator cascade

22

What are the two most common inflammatory diseases of the airway?

Chronic bronchitis

Asthma

23

What are the two major effector cells of the. Asthmatic inflammatory response?

Mast cells

Eocinophils

24

What is shown to cause early phase asthmatic response in airways?

What does symptom does it cause?

Immunoglobulin E

Bronchospasm

25

What happens during the late phase inflammatory response?

Submucosal edema

Mucus

Hyperreactivity

26

When does the late phase inflammatory response occur?

6 - 8 hours after challenge

27

What is a product of persistent shedding of epithelial cells in the respiratory system during inflammatory response?

Airway remodeling which can cause thickening in the basement membrane and increase epithelial damage enhancing inflammatory response in the future.

28

How can you classify aerosolized glucocorticoids as a drug?

And how was it absorbed by cells?

It is a topically active drug

It is absorbed by lipid diffusion because it is lipid soluble

29

What are the 3 general modes of action for glucocorticoids?

-Upregulation transcription of anti-inflammatory genes

- suppression of factors that activate transcription of inflammatory genes

- up regulate the expression of inhibitors of the inflammatory response

30

What is the effect of glucocorticoids on white cell counts?

It increases over all white cell count like neutrophils