Flashcards in Chapter 11, The Changing Family Deck (39):
a relationship in which people live together with commitment, form an economic commitment and care for any young, and consider the group critical to their identity, ex. as single-parent, cohabiting unmarried couples, domestic partnerships of gay couples, and several generations living under the same roof
a family unit composed of one or two parents, and any dependent children who live apart from other relatives
a family unit composed of relatives in addition to parents and children, all of whom live in the same household, ex. grandparents, uncles/aunts
In which continents are extended families most commonly found?
areas of Africa, Asia, Latin America, Eastern/Southern Europe
the basis of the traditional family structure, a social network of people based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption, gives us the necessities of time, food, shelter and transportation
In which time in society did kinship thrive? and why?
in pre-industrial societies because kinship served as the means of producing/distributing food and goods, and transferring property and power from one generation to the next, ex. farming families
a legally recognized and/or socially approved arrangement between two individuals that carries certain right and obligations, and usually includes sexual activity
a marriage between one man and one woman, only legal form of marriage in Canada
What was a major change that occurred in the 1970s? and how did it effect the institution of marriage?
a cultural shift towards autonomy and personal growth, people no longer had to get married to be a proper member of society, became a matter of personal choice based on self-interest and self-fulfillment, therefore the marriage rate declined
What percent of people will stay single for their lives?
10% percent of people will stay single for their lives
When combined with those who are widowed, separated and divorced, what percent of households are single households? 2006 Census
26.8% of households are single households
What are 5 reasons people are putting off marriage longer than 20 years ago?
1. economic uncertainty
2. the increasing number of women in the workforce
3. sex outside of marriage more acceptable than before 70s revolution
4. rising divorce rate, youth reluctant to copy parents
5. increasing cohabitation
two adults living together in a sexual relationship without being married, granted many of the same legal rights as a married couple
What percent of all couples are living common-law? 2006 Census
15.5% of all couples are living common-law
What are some reasons that common-law relationships might not last after marriage?
may contribute to people's individualistic attitudes and values, makes the more aware of the other options than marriage
marriages in which both spouses are in the labour force, more than 60% of all marriages in Canada, there are more married women with young children in the labour force than ever before
the domestic work that many employed woman perform at home after completing their workday on the job, amounts to a month each year
What percent of her fertile years does the average woman spend trying to avoid pregnancy?
the average woman spends 90% of her fertile years trying to avoid pregnancy
How many abortions occur per live birth? 2008
there are less than 3 abortions for every live birth in Canada
the inability to conceive after a year of unprotected sexual relations
legal process in which the rights and duties of parenting are transferred from a child's biological/legal parents to new legal parents
What are some causes for the decrease in available infants for adoption?
increased accessibility of birth control and abortion, more teens keeping their babies
What percent of all births come from teens?
teen birth rates have dropped to only 6% of all births
Why do sociologists see teen pregnancies are problematic?
teen mothers are typically unskilled at parenting, likely to drop out of school, and have no social support other than relatives, emotional/financial support from the father is often lacking
What does the increasing rate of birth outside of marriage reflect?
the declining significance of marriage as a social obligation/necessity for reproduction
What percent of divorcing couples have one or more children?
60% of divorcing couples have one or more children
What is the most frequent form of child abuse?
neglect; not meeting a child's basic needs for emotional warmth/security, shelter, food, healthcare, education, and clothing
What have researchers found to be true about parents who abuse their children?
parents who were abused, neglected, or deprived as children, or who are socially isolated as adults are the most likely to abuse their children
battered child syndrome;
a psychological disorder in which a child can experience low self-esteem, and sometimes clinical depression associated with former/current abuse by a parent/caregiver
What percent of abused children show problems in overall functioning?
44% of abused children show problems in overall functioning, such as behavioural problems, depression/anxiety, irregular school attendance, and developmental delay
What percent of children experience some form of sexual contact as children?
10-15% of children experience some form of sexual contact as children
Are children or adults more likely to to be physically/sexually assaulted and to know their aggressor?
children/youth are more likely than adults to be physically/sexually assaulted, and more likely to know their aggressor
What is the ratio of women to male victims of spousal violence?
What is the ratio of women to male victims of spousal homicide?
women are 7 times more likely than males to be murdered by their spouse or partner
Are spousal violence rates increasing or decreasing?
rates are declining with declining overall crime rates
What percent of Canadian households have a single occupant?
the spouse who takes on the larger domestic role, still mostly women
How many children are there per Canadian household?
there is an average 1.7 children per Canadian household