Flashcards in Chapter 12 Deck (63):
Communication that is used to influence the attitudes or behaviors of others; the art of persuasion
What are 3 functions of rhetorical communication is society?
1. helps strengthen democratic societies
2. helps people pursue justice
3. helps people clarify their own beliefs and actions
What are some advantages of studying rhetoric?
1. understanding viewpoints surrounding social issues
2. understanding cultures
3. critically evaluate and respond to persuasive messages
4. become better communicators
An informed consumer of rhetorical discourse who is prepared to analyse rhetorical texts
A method for generating knowledge about rhetoric
The first group to teach persuasive speaking skills in the Greek city-states
Sophists style of persuasive speaking skills is seen how today?
unethical in today's environment
Rejected the relativist approach and used rhetoric to search for "absolute" universal truth
Believed skillful persuasion was needed to defend truth and justice
Who was the greatest Roman orator?
A public speaker
Who used rhetoric for the public good and found that public speaking typically strives to inform, to entertain, and to persuade
He represented the Catholic Church's thought that rhetoric could be used to represent divine truth
What 2 things is the definition of rhetoric based upon?
- the person offering the definition
- the historical period in which the definition is offered
A person or institution that addresses a large audience; the originator of a communication message but not necessarily the one delivering it
Every rhetor holds a social position that determines what 2 things?
His/her right to speak
his/her right to access civic speaking spaces
Artistic skills of a rhetor that influence effectivness
What are the 2 artistic proofs
ethos, pathos, logos
The proof of ___ has to do with the credibility of the rhetor and the rhetorical construction of character
The identity one creates through one's public communication efforts
The proof of ____ has to do with a rhetor's use of emotions in public communication. The use of emotions to affect audience decision making
The proof of ____ has to do with the use of rational appeals; the use of rhetoric to help the audience see the rationale for a particular conclusion
Place in the social hierarchy, which comes from the way society is structured
Those people who can take the appropriate action in response to a message
What are the 4 functions of rhetoric?
1. reaffirming cultural values
2. increasing democratic participation
3. securing justice
4. promoting social change
Any event that generates a significant amount of public discourse
Each rhetorical event will bring out a range of rhetors seeking to explain the event and to reaffirm cultural values through praising and blaming, called?
The type of rhetoric used to argue what a society should do in the future, and allows citizens an opportunity for critical listening and decision making, increasing democratic participation
The arena in which deliberative decision making occurs through the exhange of ideas and arguments
Deliberative rhetoric focuses on what?
The public sphere
Rhetoric that addresses events that happened in the past with the goal of setting things right after an injustice has occurred
This negotiates ideas about what is just and unjust. Changes over time
Rhetorical events can prompt social change by this, a large, organized body of people who are attempting to create social change
T/F: There is no set list of rules to guide ethical choices
T/F: Social media can shape rhetorical discussions
What are some ethical guidelines for receivers of communication
1. be willing to listen to a range of perspectives
2. avoid being silenced by information overload
3. listen critically to the rhetor
4. speak out publicly if a rhetor demeans others
5. fairly assess what you hear
6. be willing to change your wind
7. speak out if you hear misinformation
Whichever of three goals -- to inform, persuade, or entertain -- dominates a speech
What is step one in the synergetic model?
1. Identify your general purpose
What are the 3 common objectives in public speaking?
1. informative speeches (instruct, explain, define, demonstrate, clarify, or teach)
2. persuasive speeches (influence, convince, motivate, sell, preach, or stimulate action)
3. Evocative speeches
Evocative speeches intended to entertain, inspire, celebrate, commemorate, or build community
What is step 2 in the synergetic model?
2. understanding your audience
The process of determining what an audience already knows or wants to know about a topic, who they are, what they know or need to know about the speaker, and what their expectations might be for the presentation
The portion of an audience analysis that considers the ages, races, sexes, sexual orientations, religions, and social class of the audience
What is step 3 of the synergetic model?
3. selecting your topic
What is step 4 of the synergetic model?
4. identifying a specific purpose
What a speaker wants to inform or persuade an audience about, or the type of feelings the speaker wants to evoke
Identifying this, a statement of the topic of a speech and the speaker's position on it, is the next step in narrowing the purpose and direction of your speech
Information that supports the speaker's ideas. Examples are electronic sources, print sources, and personal sources
Audiovisual materials that help a speaker reach intended speech goals
When your are organizing your presentation, the first step is to choose what?
An organizational pattern
Your organizational pattern should have how many points? These main points should be divided into?
3-5 main points
divided into 3-5 subpoints each
A pattern that follows a timeline (timeline)
A pattern that arranges points by location and can be used to describe something small (location)
A pattern that has no innate organization except that imposed by the speaker (logical)
A pattern in which the speaker describes various aspects of a problem and then proposes solutions
A pattern that is used to create understanding and agreement, and sometimes to argue for a specific action
Opening material of a speech from which the audience members gain a first impression of the speech's content and of the speaker
Transitions in a speech that help an audience understand the speacker's organization, making it easier to follow
Closing material of a speech where the speaker reviews the main points, may challenge the audience to act, and leaves the audience with a positive view of speaker and topic
These are examples of:
"my first point, my second point" "lets begin with" "my next point"
Speakers should develop this, or an image
The presentation of a speech before an audience