Chapter 12 Flashcards Preview

COMM 2O1 > Chapter 12 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 12 Deck (63):
1

Communication that is used to influence the attitudes or behaviors of others; the art of persuasion

Rhetoric

2

What are 3 functions of rhetorical communication is society?

1. helps strengthen democratic societies
2. helps people pursue justice
3. helps people clarify their own beliefs and actions

3

What are some advantages of studying rhetoric?

1. understanding viewpoints surrounding social issues
2. understanding cultures
3. critically evaluate and respond to persuasive messages
4. become better communicators

4

An informed consumer of rhetorical discourse who is prepared to analyse rhetorical texts

Rhetorical critic

5

A method for generating knowledge about rhetoric

Rhetorical criticism

6

The first group to teach persuasive speaking skills in the Greek city-states

Sophists

7

Sophists style of persuasive speaking skills is seen how today?

unethical in today's environment

8

Rejected the relativist approach and used rhetoric to search for "absolute" universal truth

Plato

9

Believed skillful persuasion was needed to defend truth and justice

Aristotle

10

Who was the greatest Roman orator?

Cicero

11

A public speaker

Orator

12

Who used rhetoric for the public good and found that public speaking typically strives to inform, to entertain, and to persuade

Cicero

13

He represented the Catholic Church's thought that rhetoric could be used to represent divine truth

Augustine

14

What 2 things is the definition of rhetoric based upon?

- the person offering the definition
- the historical period in which the definition is offered

15

A person or institution that addresses a large audience; the originator of a communication message but not necessarily the one delivering it

Rhetor

16

Every rhetor holds a social position that determines what 2 things?

His/her right to speak
his/her right to access civic speaking spaces

17

Artistic skills of a rhetor that influence effectivness

Artistic proofs

18

What are the 2 artistic proofs

ethos, pathos, logos

19

The proof of ___ has to do with the credibility of the rhetor and the rhetorical construction of character

Ethos

20

The identity one creates through one's public communication efforts

Persona

21

The proof of ____ has to do with a rhetor's use of emotions in public communication. The use of emotions to affect audience decision making

Pathos

22

The proof of ____ has to do with the use of rational appeals; the use of rhetoric to help the audience see the rationale for a particular conclusion

Logos

23

Place in the social hierarchy, which comes from the way society is structured

Social position

24

Those people who can take the appropriate action in response to a message

Rhetorical audience

25

What are the 4 functions of rhetoric?

1. reaffirming cultural values
2. increasing democratic participation
3. securing justice
4. promoting social change

26

Any event that generates a significant amount of public discourse

Rhetorical event

27

Each rhetorical event will bring out a range of rhetors seeking to explain the event and to reaffirm cultural values through praising and blaming, called?

Epideictic rhetoric

28

The type of rhetoric used to argue what a society should do in the future, and allows citizens an opportunity for critical listening and decision making, increasing democratic participation

Deliberative rhetoric

29

The arena in which deliberative decision making occurs through the exhange of ideas and arguments

Public sphere

30

Deliberative rhetoric focuses on what?

The public sphere

31

Rhetoric that addresses events that happened in the past with the goal of setting things right after an injustice has occurred

Forensic rhetoric

32

This negotiates ideas about what is just and unjust. Changes over time

Forensic rhetoric

33

Rhetorical events can prompt social change by this, a large, organized body of people who are attempting to create social change

Social movement

34

T/F: There is no set list of rules to guide ethical choices

True

35

T/F: Social media can shape rhetorical discussions

True

36

What are some ethical guidelines for receivers of communication

1. be willing to listen to a range of perspectives
2. avoid being silenced by information overload
3. listen critically to the rhetor
4. speak out publicly if a rhetor demeans others
5. fairly assess what you hear
6. be willing to change your wind
7. speak out if you hear misinformation

37

Whichever of three goals -- to inform, persuade, or entertain -- dominates a speech

General purpose

38

What is step one in the synergetic model?

1. Identify your general purpose

39

What are the 3 common objectives in public speaking?

1. informative speeches (instruct, explain, define, demonstrate, clarify, or teach)
2. persuasive speeches (influence, convince, motivate, sell, preach, or stimulate action)
3. Evocative speeches

40

Evocative speeches intended to entertain, inspire, celebrate, commemorate, or build community

Special-occasion speeches

41

What is step 2 in the synergetic model?

2. understanding your audience

42

The process of determining what an audience already knows or wants to know about a topic, who they are, what they know or need to know about the speaker, and what their expectations might be for the presentation

Audience analysis

43

The portion of an audience analysis that considers the ages, races, sexes, sexual orientations, religions, and social class of the audience

Demographic analysis

44

What is step 3 of the synergetic model?

3. selecting your topic

45

What is step 4 of the synergetic model?

4. identifying a specific purpose

46

What a speaker wants to inform or persuade an audience about, or the type of feelings the speaker wants to evoke

Specific purpose

47

Identifying this, a statement of the topic of a speech and the speaker's position on it, is the next step in narrowing the purpose and direction of your speech

Thesis statement

48

Information that supports the speaker's ideas. Examples are electronic sources, print sources, and personal sources

Supporting materials

49

Audiovisual materials that help a speaker reach intended speech goals

Visual aids

50

When your are organizing your presentation, the first step is to choose what?

An organizational pattern

51

Your organizational pattern should have how many points? These main points should be divided into?

3-5 main points
divided into 3-5 subpoints each

52

A pattern that follows a timeline (timeline)

Chronological pattern

53

A pattern that arranges points by location and can be used to describe something small (location)

Spatial pattern

54

A pattern that has no innate organization except that imposed by the speaker (logical)

Topical pattern

55

A pattern in which the speaker describes various aspects of a problem and then proposes solutions

Problem-solution pattern

56

A pattern that is used to create understanding and agreement, and sometimes to argue for a specific action

Cause-effect pattern

57

Opening material of a speech from which the audience members gain a first impression of the speech's content and of the speaker

Introduction

58

Transitions in a speech that help an audience understand the speacker's organization, making it easier to follow

Signposts

59

Closing material of a speech where the speaker reviews the main points, may challenge the audience to act, and leaves the audience with a positive view of speaker and topic

Conclusion

60

These are examples of:
"my first point, my second point" "lets begin with" "my next point"

Signposts

61

Speakers should develop this, or an image

Persona

62

The presentation of a speech before an audience

Delievery

63

Looking directly into the eyes of another

Eye contact