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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (65):
1

The movement, migration, or scattering of people away from an established or ancestral homeland

Diaspora

2

Due to this, increasing cultural diversity within the US, and the Internet, understanding intercultural communication is vital

travel abroad programs

3

Studying intercultural communication can lead to success in these contexts

Domestic and international business contexts

4

Lack of attention to this can lead to costly disasters in business effectiveness

Cultural factors

5

Fostering interethnic relations calls for this

Peacebuilding

6

Working toward stability in a region to prevent conflicts from escalating into war

peace building

7

T/F: People are not motivated to solve "intractable conflicts"

True

8

Studying of intercultural communication can increase this by making us more aware of our own cultural identity and communication patterns

Increase self-awareness

9

This may depend on your social and economic position

Enhanced self awareness

10

Communication that occurs in interactions between people who are culturally different

Intercultural communication

11

Learned patterns of perceptions, values, and behaviors shared by a group of people

Culture

12

Culture is ____, ____, and operates within

Dynamic
Heterogeneous (diverse)
Operates within societal power structures

13

Diverse

heterogeneous

14

Many people live in what kind of environments?

Multicultural environments

15

People who live between cultures and often experience contradictory cultural patterns

Border dwellers

16

What are 3 ways to become a border dweller?

1. travel
2. socialization
3. participation in an intercultural relationship

17

People who are border dwellers by choice for an extended time, such as immigrants

Voluntary long-term travelers

18

People who are border dwellers by choice and for a limited time, such as study-abroad students or corporate personnel

Voluntary short-term travelers

19

People who are border dwellers permanently but not by choice, such as those who relocate to escape war

Involuntary long-term travelers

20

People who are border dwellers not by choice and for only a limited time, such as refugees forced to move

Involuntary short-term travelers

21

What are 2 types of challenges for border dwellers?

1. culture shock
2. reverse culture shock/reentry shock

22

A feeling of disorientation and discomfort due to the lack of familiar environmental cues

Culture shock

23

Culture shock experienced by travelers upon returning to their home country

Reverse culture shock/reentry shock

24

Multiple ? may exist because of one's race, sexual orientation, or religion

Cultural realities

25

Attempts to do this may lead to exclusion, pressure to assimilate, or cultural limbo

Enact identities

26

T/F: Attitudes toward intercultural relationships have improved in recent decades

True

27

What is the best way to promote growth?

open communication

28

Negotiating cultural tensions on the borders requires?

flexibility and adaptability

29

People who feel disintegrated by having to shift cultures

Encapsulated marginal people

30

People who thrive in a border-dweller life, while recognizing its tremendous challenges

Constructive marginal people

31

Beliefs that are so central to a cultural group that they are never questioned

Cultural values

32

A value orientation that respects the autonomy and independence of individuals

Individualist orientation

33

A value orientation that stresses the needs of the group

Collectivist orientation

34

What orientation is the us

individualist orientation

35

These cultures have a nuclear family household

individualistic cultures

36

In individualistic cultures, children are ____ and parents are expected to not be a what?

Autonomous (live on their own by late adolescence)
- not to be a burden on their children when they age

37

A value orientation that expresses whether it is more important for a person to "do" or "be"

Preferred personality

38

Working to achieve material gain

"doing mode"

39

Importance of experiencing life and relationships

"Being mode"

40

A value orientation that expresses whether humans are fundamentally good, evil, or a mixture

View of human nature

41

This view includes rehabilitation and innocent until proven guilty

Humans as good

42

This view includes punishment and incarceration

Humans as evil

43

The perceived relationship between humans and nature. Some cultures believe natures rule us, we rule nature, or that we can exist in harmony

Human-nature value orientation

44

A value orientation that refers to the extent to which less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a culture expect and accept an unequal distribution of power

Power distance

45

The dimension of a society's value orientation that reflects its attitude toward virtue or truth

Long-term versus short-term orientation

46

A value orientation that stresses the importance of possessing one fundamental truth. Monotheistic

Short-term orientation

47

Belief in one god

Monotheistic

48

A value orientation in which people stress the importance of virtue.
Polytheistic

Long-term orientation

49

Belief in more than one god

Polytheistic

50

This emphasizes simultaneous contradictory truths; this approach is useful in responding to cultural contradictions

Dialectic approach

51

Instead of either/or, the dialectic approach emphasizes

Both/and

52

The dialectic approach is useful in responding to what

cultural contradictions

53

The dialetic approach challenges what kind of thinking?

Dichotomous thinking

54

Thinking in which things are perceived as either/or, for example: good or bad, right or wrong, big or small

Dichotomous thinking

55

This example of the dialectic approach emphasizes that some behaviors are determined by our culture, while others are idiosyncratic

Cultural-individual dialectic

56

This dialectic approach emphasizes that the individual and the situation are simultaneously important

Personal-contextual dialectic

57

This dialectic approach emphasizes that differences and commonalities between cultures can both be present

Differences-similarities dialectic

58

This example of the dialectic approach emphasizes that cultural patterns can undergo dynamic change

Static-dynamic dialectic

59

This dialectic approach emphasizes the need to understand the past and be aware of current events (emphasizes both the present and the past influences on culture)

History/past-present/future dialectic

60

This example of the dialectic approach emphasizes that cultural members can be simultaneously privileged in some ways while disadvantaged in others

Privilege-disadvantage dialectic

61

These have the power to influence perceptions, understanding, and communication patterns of contemporary intercultural interactions on all relationship levels

Political and historical forces

62

What 2 things provide the best environment for improving interracial attitudes?

Integrated religious institutions and educational institutions

63

What determines whose cultural values will be respected and followed?

Power differences

64

A significant minority group within a dominant majority that does not share dominant group values or communication patterns

Co-cultural group

65

What are 3 guidelines for communicating more ethically with people whose cultural backgrounds differ from your own

1. remember that everyone is enmeshed in a culture and is communicating through a particular cultural lens
2. be aware of the humanity of other cultural groups and avoid viewing them as an exotic other
3. Be open to alternate ways of viewing the world than the ones you were taught