Flashcards in Chapter 12 Deck (143)
The first line of defense is immediate, non-specific and there is _____.
A surface protection composed of anatomical and physiological barriers that keep microbes from penetrating sterile body compartments.
first line of defense
The first line of defense can be either physical or _____.
A cellular and chemical system that comes immediately into play if infectious agents make it past the surface defenses.
Second line of defense
The second line of defense is immediate, non-specific, and there is ______.
The first line of defense are both _____ and _____ barriers that impede the entry of not only microbes but any foreign agent, whether living or not.
chemical and physical
In the second line of defense phagocytosis, inflammation, ______, and antimicrobial proteins protect the body.
The third line of defense is delayed, specific and can _____.
Includes specific host defenses that must be developed uniquely for each microbe through the action of specialized white blood cells.
third line of defense
The third line of defense includes gamma-delta t cells and natural killer t cells, B cells, and _____.
The ____ line of defense impedes the entry of microbes and other foreign agents.
The first line of defense is ___, nonspecific defense barriers that are both chemical and physical.
The physical barriers of the first line of defense include the tough outer layer of skin, waterproof, sloughing, hair shaft shedding, and ____.
Physical factors in the first line of defense in the respiratory tract include ______.
____ is when the nasal hair, mucus trap microbes trying to enter the body.
When foreign matter reaches the bronchi, trachea, and larynx _____ is triggered to try and remove the foreign particles.
Tears/blinking, saliva, urine, vaginal secretions, vomiting and defecation are all ____ physical factors that try to wash the body of foreign particles.
______ in sweat, inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi.
The skin, stomach, vagina, digestive juices and bile are chemical factors because of their ____.
_____ in perspiration, tears, saliva (peptidoglycan) are chemical factors.
_____ in blood -sequesters free iron which is a chemical factor in the first line of defense.
Fatty acids, acidic pH, lysozyme, and Transferrin are all _____
chemical factors in the first line of defense
Host defenses keep commensals in check and ____ eliminated.
The ____ is a compartmentalized network of vessels, cells, and specialized accessory organs.
The lymphatic system returns _____ to the circulatory system.
The lymphatic system drain-off system for the ____.
The lymphatic system is responsible for surveillance, recognition, and _____ against foreign materials.
____ is fluid similar to blood but without red blood cells.
___ are clusters in the body (neck, armpit, chest, abdomen, pelvis, groin). Large percentage serve the GI tract.
____ is similar to a lymph node except it filters blood instead of lymph. Filters pathogens from the blood.
The ___ originates in the embryo as two lobes in the lower neck region that fuse into a triangular structure.
Under the influence of thyme hormones, thymus cells develop specificity and are released into the circulation as ____.
mature T cells
Once T cells are matured, they migrate to and settle in other _____ such as the lymph nodes and spleen, where they occupy the specific sites describes previously.
____ are small, encapsulated, bean-shaped organs stationed, usually in clusters, along lymphatic channels and large blood vessels of the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
The job of lymph nodes is to filter out materials in the ___ and to provide physicians with important clues as to a patient's condition.
Generalized lymph node enlargement may indicate the presence of a systemic illness, while enlargement of an individual lymph node may be evidence of a _______ infection.
The ____ is a lymphoid organ in the upper left portion of the abdominal cavity.
The spleen can hold up to ___ of blood, for this reason injury to the spleen can result in profuse bleeding.
gut associated lymphoid tissue
mucosal associated lymphoid tissue
skin associated lymphoid tissue
bronchial associated lymphoid tissue
Tonsils and ____ of pregnant and lactating women are miscellaneous lymphoid tissues.
The thymus grows from embryo to ____.
The thymus ____ during adulthood.
Development of mature T cells occurs in the ____.
The substance that courses through the arteries, veins, and capillaries is _____, a liquid consisting of blood cells suspending in plasma.
Maturation and recognition of ___ during lymphocyte development.
_____ is the production of blood cells
___ in bone marrow produce red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
Red blood cells are called erythrocytes and are responsible for ____.
White blood cells are called leukocytes and play a part in the ____.
Platelets are called ____ are play a role in blood clotting.
The ____ and ___ lines of defense involve immune cells - white blood cells.
2nd and 3rd
Second line of defense is an ____ immune response.
The second line of defense involves: 4
One of the roles of phagocytosis involves serving _____.
One of the roles of phagocytosis involves _____ of materials (for innate).
One of the roles of phagocytosis involves the extortion of ____ information (for Adaptive)
Professional phagocytes include neutrophils, monocytes, and _____.
The most common leukocyte is a ______ aka PMN.
There are high number of ____ in blood and tissue.
_____ are general purpose phagocytes that react early in the inflammatory response to bacteria and other foreign materials and to damaged to tissue.
A common sign of bacterial infection is a high neutrophil count in the blood, and neutrophils are also a primary component of _______.
_____ are found in the bone marrow and spleen.
The main role of ____ is to defend against parasites and worms via degranulation.
_____ are present in low number and cause inflammation and allergic response.
____ are also associated with inflammation and allergies.
Localized ____ are called mast cells.
Mast cells are found in the lungs, skin, tongue, and _____ and intestinal tract.
linings of the nose
_____ contain large cytoplasmic granules which obscure the cell nucleus. When activates, degranulation occurs to release _____.
_____ are transformed into macrophages/dendritic cells after they migrate out of the bloodstream.
_____ are stationary phagocytic cells present in connective tissues.
Histiocytes do not travel in the ____.
Examples of histiocytes include dendritic cells in the ____, macrophages in the spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow and kidney. In addition, alveolar macrophages in the lungs and ___ in the liver.
Macrophages are responsible for ____.
_____ processing foreign molecules and presenting them to lymphocytes (role in adaptive response).
Macrophages secrete ______ that mediate immune cells and reactions.
biologically active compounds
____ and ___ are types of lymphocytes.
T cells and B cells
T cells mediate ____.
B cells are responsible for _____.
The lifespan of white blood cells is around _____ weeks.
Total white blood cell count is ____.
not overly informative
Differential white cell count equals the presence and number of specific types of ____.
white blood cells
Differentials WBC count
Neutrophil 40 - 60%
Lymphocytes 20% to 40%
Basophils .05 - 1%
Phago means ____ in Greek.
Cute means ____ in Greek.
Ingestion of ____ or particles by a cell, performed by phagocytes.
7 steps of phagocytosis
______ are molecules shared by many organisms, not in mammals.
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)
Peptidoglycan and LPS are _______.
Double stranded RNA are examples of _____.
PRR's stands for ___.
pattern recognition receptors
PRRs are located on ____, dendritic cells and lymphocytes.
PRRs recognize and bind ____.
The inflammatory response can be _____ or ____.
systemic or local
A factor that elicits inflammation include ____ from infection.
A factor that elicits inflammation response is tissue injury or ____.
A factor that elicits inflammation include specific ____.
The function of the inflammatory response.
1. attract immune components tot he site of the injury
2. repair damaged tissues and clear away waste/debris
3. destroy microbes and block further invasion (confine
In the first stage of inflammation _____ and chemical mediators are released.
Stage 2 of inflammation involves vasodilation which facilitates the influx of _____. Neutrophils followed by macrophages and _____.
In stage 3 of inflammation, fluid escapes through gaps in the walls of post capillary venues edema. ____ builds.
In stage 4 of inflammation ____ is repaired.
Lymphocytes mot to the site of infection/injury via chemotaxis, margination, and _____.
_____ are inflammatory mediators.
Hundreds of molecules secreted to regulate, stimulate, suppress inflammation and immunity are called _____.
Cytokines are produced by ____, macrophages, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, mast cells, platelets, and endothelial cells.
IL 1 activates certain WBC, ____.
IL2 activities of white blood cells, ____.
process of self tolerance
IL6 stimulates growth of _____.
IL4 induces differentiation of _____.
naive T cells.
TNF increase ____ and phagocytosis, pyrogen.
Hypothalamus sets at ____ .
_____ are substances that reset the hypothalamic thermostat to a higher setting (exogenous or endogenous).
____ helps raise the body temperature.
____ results b/c skin remains constant temperature.
____ causes heat loss as temp goes back down.
One benefit of a fever is that it stimulates ______ production.
One benefit of a fever is faster tissue ______.
One benefit of a fever is it impedes the nutrition of _____.
bacteria, requesting available iron
One benefit of a fever is it impedes _____ of temperature-sensitive microorganisms.
Slight/moderate fever in an otherwise healthy person is ____.
If a fever is too high, you are at risk for _____, and dehydration or even death.
Antimicrobial proteins, interferons, are produced naturally by certain white blood cells and ____.
Interferons bind to _____ and induce changes in genetic expression.
Interferons are responsible for _______ and defend against microbes.
_____ are responsible antiviral activity.
Antiviral interferon activity
Antimicrobial proteins, ______, are a series of proteins circulating inactive in the blood.
Antimicrobial proteins, complement, are stimulated by recognition of _____.
Antimicrobial proteins, complement, are activates in a _____.
The goal of antimicrobial proteins, complement, are to destroy microbes, and prevent excessive host _____.
There are ___ different pathways that all yield similar end results possible involved in complements.
Iron is important for both humans and ____.
Hemoglobin is in ___.
Transferring is in ____ and ____.
blood and tissue
_____ is in milk and saliva.
____ an iron binding protein that is in every cell type.
_____ are produced by bacteria for scavenging iron. They bind iron more tightly than human proteins.
Short proteins able to insert themselves into prokaryotic membranes to kill microbes.