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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Deck (143)
1

The first line of defense is immediate, non-specific and there is _____.

no memory

2

A surface protection composed of anatomical and physiological barriers that keep microbes from penetrating sterile body compartments.

first line of defense

3

The first line of defense can be either physical or _____.

chemical

4

A cellular and chemical system that comes immediately into play if infectious agents make it past the surface defenses.

Second line of defense

5

The second line of defense is immediate, non-specific, and there is ______.

no memory

6

The first line of defense are both _____ and _____ barriers that impede the entry of not only microbes but any foreign agent, whether living or not.

chemical and physical

7

In the second line of defense phagocytosis, inflammation, ______, and antimicrobial proteins protect the body.

fever

8

The third line of defense is delayed, specific and can _____.

form memory

9

Includes specific host defenses that must be developed uniquely for each microbe through the action of specialized white blood cells.

third line of defense

10

The third line of defense includes gamma-delta t cells and natural killer t cells, B cells, and _____.

T cells

11

The ____ line of defense impedes the entry of microbes and other foreign agents.

line

12

The first line of defense is ___, nonspecific defense barriers that are both chemical and physical.

inborn

13

The physical barriers of the first line of defense include the tough outer layer of skin, waterproof, sloughing, hair shaft shedding, and ____.

sweating

14

Physical factors in the first line of defense in the respiratory tract include ______.

mucous membranes

15

____ is when the nasal hair, mucus trap microbes trying to enter the body.

trapping

16

When foreign matter reaches the bronchi, trachea, and larynx _____ is triggered to try and remove the foreign particles.

coughing

17

Tears/blinking, saliva, urine, vaginal secretions, vomiting and defecation are all ____ physical factors that try to wash the body of foreign particles.

fluid

18

Cillary escalator

?

19

______ in sweat, inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi.

fatty acids

20

The skin, stomach, vagina, digestive juices and bile are chemical factors because of their ____.

acidic pH

21

_____ in perspiration, tears, saliva (peptidoglycan) are chemical factors.

lysozyme

22

_____ in blood -sequesters free iron which is a chemical factor in the first line of defense.

transferrin

23

Fatty acids, acidic pH, lysozyme, and Transferrin are all _____

chemical factors in the first line of defense

24

Host defenses keep commensals in check and ____ eliminated.

pathogens

25

The ____ is a compartmentalized network of vessels, cells, and specialized accessory organs.

lymphatic system

26

The lymphatic system returns _____ to the circulatory system.

extracellular

27

The lymphatic system drain-off system for the ____.

inflammatory response

28

The lymphatic system is responsible for surveillance, recognition, and _____ against foreign materials.

protection

29

____ is fluid similar to blood but without red blood cells.

lymph

30

___ are clusters in the body (neck, armpit, chest, abdomen, pelvis, groin). Large percentage serve the GI tract.

lymph nodes

31

____ is similar to a lymph node except it filters blood instead of lymph. Filters pathogens from the blood.

spleen

32

The ___ originates in the embryo as two lobes in the lower neck region that fuse into a triangular structure.

thymus

33

Under the influence of thyme hormones, thymus cells develop specificity and are released into the circulation as ____.

mature T cells

34

Once T cells are matured, they migrate to and settle in other _____ such as the lymph nodes and spleen, where they occupy the specific sites describes previously.

lymphoid organs

35

____ are small, encapsulated, bean-shaped organs stationed, usually in clusters, along lymphatic channels and large blood vessels of the thoracic and abdominal cavities.

lymph nodes

36

The job of lymph nodes is to filter out materials in the ___ and to provide physicians with important clues as to a patient's condition.

lymph

37

Generalized lymph node enlargement may indicate the presence of a systemic illness, while enlargement of an individual lymph node may be evidence of a _______ infection.

localized

38

The ____ is a lymphoid organ in the upper left portion of the abdominal cavity.

spleen

39

The spleen can hold up to ___ of blood, for this reason injury to the spleen can result in profuse bleeding.

1 cup

40

GALT

gut associated lymphoid tissue

41

MALT

mucosal associated lymphoid tissue

42

SALT

skin associated lymphoid tissue

43

BALT

bronchial associated lymphoid tissue

44

Tonsils and ____ of pregnant and lactating women are miscellaneous lymphoid tissues.

breasts

45

The thymus grows from embryo to ____.

puberty

46

The thymus ____ during adulthood.

shrinks

47

Development of mature T cells occurs in the ____.

thymus

48

The substance that courses through the arteries, veins, and capillaries is _____, a liquid consisting of blood cells suspending in plasma.

whole blood

49

Maturation and recognition of ___ during lymphocyte development.

"self"

50

_____ is the production of blood cells

hematopoiesis

51

___ in bone marrow produce red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

stem cells

52

Red blood cells are called erythrocytes and are responsible for ____.

02/c02 transport

53

White blood cells are called leukocytes and play a part in the ____.

immune system

54

Platelets are called ____ are play a role in blood clotting.

thrombocytes

55

The ____ and ___ lines of defense involve immune cells - white blood cells.

2nd and 3rd

56

Second line of defense is an ____ immune response.

innate

57

The second line of defense involves: 4

phagocytosis
inflammation
interferons/antimicrobial peptide
complement

58

One of the roles of phagocytosis involves serving _____.

tissue compartments

59

One of the roles of phagocytosis involves _____ of materials (for innate).

ingest/eliminate

60

One of the roles of phagocytosis involves the extortion of ____ information (for Adaptive)

immunogenic

61

Professional phagocytes include neutrophils, monocytes, and _____.

macrophages/dendritic cells.

62

The most common leukocyte is a ______ aka PMN.

neutrophil

63

There are high number of ____ in blood and tissue.

neutrophils

64

_____ are general purpose phagocytes that react early in the inflammatory response to bacteria and other foreign materials and to damaged to tissue.

neutrophils

65

A common sign of bacterial infection is a high neutrophil count in the blood, and neutrophils are also a primary component of _______.

pus

66

_____ are found in the bone marrow and spleen.

eosinophil

67

The main role of ____ is to defend against parasites and worms via degranulation.

eosinophil

68

_____ are present in low number and cause inflammation and allergic response.

basophil

69

____ are also associated with inflammation and allergies.

eosinophils

70

Localized ____ are called mast cells.

basophils

71

Mast cells are found in the lungs, skin, tongue, and _____ and intestinal tract.

linings of the nose

72

_____ contain large cytoplasmic granules which obscure the cell nucleus. When activates, degranulation occurs to release _____.

basophil
histaminedkfjds; j

73

_____ are transformed into macrophages/dendritic cells after they migrate out of the bloodstream.

monocytes

74

_____ are stationary phagocytic cells present in connective tissues.

histiocyte

75

Histiocytes do not travel in the ____.

blood

76

Examples of histiocytes include dendritic cells in the ____, macrophages in the spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow and kidney. In addition, alveolar macrophages in the lungs and ___ in the liver.

Kupffer cells

77

Macrophages are responsible for ____.

phagocytosis

78

_____ processing foreign molecules and presenting them to lymphocytes (role in adaptive response).

macrophages

79

Macrophages secrete ______ that mediate immune cells and reactions.

biologically active compounds

80

____ and ___ are types of lymphocytes.

T cells and B cells

81

T cells mediate ____.

immunity

82

B cells are responsible for _____.

antibody production

83

The lifespan of white blood cells is around _____ weeks.

2 -3

84

Total white blood cell count is ____.

not overly informative

85

Differential white cell count equals the presence and number of specific types of ____.

white blood cells

86

Differentials WBC count

Neutrophil 40 - 60%
Lymphocytes 20% to 40%
Monocytes 2-8%
Eosinophils 1-4%
Basophils .05 - 1%

87

Phago means ____ in Greek.

eat

88

Cute means ____ in Greek.

cell

89

Ingestion of ____ or particles by a cell, performed by phagocytes.

microbes

90

7 steps of phagocytosis

1. chemotaxis
2. adhesion
3. engulfment
4. phagosome
5. phagolysosome
6. killing
7. release

91

______ are molecules shared by many organisms, not in mammals.

Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)

92

Peptidoglycan and LPS are _______.

bacterial PAMPs

93

Double stranded RNA are examples of _____.

viral PAMPS

94

PRR's stands for ___.

pattern recognition receptors

95

PRRs are located on ____, dendritic cells and lymphocytes.

phagocytes

96

PRRs recognize and bind ____.

PAMPs

97

The inflammatory response can be _____ or ____.

systemic or local

98

A factor that elicits inflammation include ____ from infection.

trauma

99

A factor that elicits inflammation response is tissue injury or ____.

necrosis.

100

A factor that elicits inflammation include specific ____.

immune reactions.

101

The function of the inflammatory response.

1. attract immune components tot he site of the injury
2. repair damaged tissues and clear away waste/debris
3. destroy microbes and block further invasion (confine

102

In the first stage of inflammation _____ and chemical mediators are released.

vasoconstriction

103

Stage 2 of inflammation involves vasodilation which facilitates the influx of _____. Neutrophils followed by macrophages and _____.

immune components
lymphocytes

104

In stage 3 of inflammation, fluid escapes through gaps in the walls of post capillary venues edema. ____ builds.

pus

105

In stage 4 of inflammation ____ is repaired.

tissue

106

Lymphocytes mot to the site of infection/injury via chemotaxis, margination, and _____.

diapedesis

107

_____ are inflammatory mediators.

cytokines

108

Hundreds of molecules secreted to regulate, stimulate, suppress inflammation and immunity are called _____.

cytokines

109

Cytokines are produced by ____, macrophages, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, mast cells, platelets, and endothelial cells.

monocytes

110

IL 1 activates certain WBC, ____.

pyrogen

111

IL2 activities of white blood cells, ____.

process of self tolerance

112

IL6 stimulates growth of _____.

B cells

113

IL4 induces differentiation of _____.

naive T cells.

114

TNF increase ____ and phagocytosis, pyrogen.

chemotaxis

115

Hypothalamus sets at ____ .

37C

116

_____ are substances that reset the hypothalamic thermostat to a higher setting (exogenous or endogenous).

Pyrogens

117

____ helps raise the body temperature.

shivering

118

____ results b/c skin remains constant temperature.

chill

119

____ causes heat loss as temp goes back down.

sweating

120

One benefit of a fever is that it stimulates ______ production.

lymphocyte

121

One benefit of a fever is faster tissue ______.

repair

122

One benefit of a fever is it impedes the nutrition of _____.

bacteria, requesting available iron

123

One benefit of a fever is it impedes _____ of temperature-sensitive microorganisms.

multiplication

124

Slight/moderate fever in an otherwise healthy person is ____.

beneficial

125

If a fever is too high, you are at risk for _____, and dehydration or even death.

tachycardia

126

Antimicrobial proteins, interferons, are produced naturally by certain white blood cells and ____.

tissue

127

Interferons bind to _____ and induce changes in genetic expression.

cell surfaces

128

Interferons are responsible for _______ and defend against microbes.

immune regulation

129

_____ are responsible antiviral activity.

interferon

130

Antiviral interferon activity

?

131

Antimicrobial proteins, ______, are a series of proteins circulating inactive in the blood.

complement

132

Antimicrobial proteins, complement, are stimulated by recognition of _____.

foreign microbe

133

Antimicrobial proteins, complement, are activates in a _____.

cascade fashion

134

The goal of antimicrobial proteins, complement, are to destroy microbes, and prevent excessive host _____.

tissue damage

135

There are ___ different pathways that all yield similar end results possible involved in complements.

3

136

Iron is important for both humans and ____.

bacteria

137

Hemoglobin is in ___.

RBC

138

Transferring is in ____ and ____.

blood and tissue

139

_____ is in milk and saliva.

Lactoferrin

140

____ an iron binding protein that is in every cell type.

ferritin

141

_____ are produced by bacteria for scavenging iron. They bind iron more tightly than human proteins.

Siderophores

142

Short proteins able to insert themselves into prokaryotic membranes to kill microbes.

antimicrobial peptides

143

Researchers are looking for ways to turn these antimicrobial peptides into _____.

therapeutic drugs