Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (137)
Humoral immunity B-cells are ______ secreting machines.
Each B-cell has over ____ copies on its surface.
Approximately a billion different ____.
B cells circulate through the blood, _____ to specific sites in lymph nodes, spleen, and GALT.
A matching B cell is activated by its ______.
Following maturation in the bone marrow and _____.
Following maturation in the bone marrow and spleen, B cells remain in ______ until they encounter an antigen and are activated.
3 possible outcomes from B cell activation
memory b cells
regulatory b cells
Plasma cells secret _____.
loads of antibodies
Memory B cells are saved for ____.
Regulatory B cells secrete _____.
When B cell proliferation occurs many ___.
copies are made
The antibody structure looks like a Y. The top two legs of the Y are called the _____.
fab or fragment of antigen binding
The antibody structure looks like a Y. The bottom of the Y is called the ______.
Fc region or constant region
An antibody will bind only ____ specific antigen.
Once the perfect antibody/antigen match is made and binding occurs, the antibody is ____.
B cell activation requires ___ signals?
Signal 1 of B cell activation occurs when the antigen binds to _______ attached to the B cell surface.
Signal 2 of B cell activation occurs via a ______ or _______ mechanism.
In B cell activation, _____ are sometimes, but not always involved.
During ____ activation B cells are activated without T cells.
During ______ activation B cell processes and present antigen + MHC on B cells. T helper cell releases chemical signals that helps to _____ B cells.
B Cells activated with T helper cells are ______. They begin with a B cell engulfing an antigen, the antigen is then presented and a ____ activates the B cell, which results in proliferation. This results in 2 types of b cells: ______ and ______.
memory cells and plasma cells
_________ is the deactivation of B cells and T cells after they have expressed receptors for self-antigens and before they develop into fully immunocompetent lymphocytes.
B cells go through _____ during development.
B cells that do not bind "self" molecules are _____.
B cells that bind self molecules are ______.
Plasma cells are ____ factories fro antibodies of the same specificity as the original B cells.
Memory cells seed the ______ circulation, ready for encounters with the same antigen.
Regulatory cells proliferate and secrete _____ to regulate the T cell response.
______ coat the surface of a bacteria, preventing its normal function and reproduction in various ways.
Antibodies called opsonins stimulate _______, a process that makes microbes more readily recognized by phagocytes, which dispose of them.
In _______ reactions, antibodies fill the surface receptors on a virus or the active site on a microbial enzyme to prevent it from attachingnormolly.
The capacity for antibodies to aggregate or ______, antigens is the consequence of their cross-linking cells or particles into large clumps. This renders microbes immobile and enhances their phagocytosis.
The interaction of an antibody with ______ can result in the specific rupturing of cells and some viruses.
An _____ is a special type of antibody that neutralizes bacterial exotoxins.
Immunoglobulin ____ is the main antibody (80%).
Immunoglobulin G is found in _____.
Immunoglobulin _____ crosses the placenta.
Immunoglobulin _____ activates complement.
Immunoglobulin G enhances _____; neutralizes ____ and ______; and protects the fetus and newborns.
toxins and viruses
Immunoglobulin _____ is a dimer.
Immunoglobulin A is ______.
Immunoglobulin A makes up ___% of serum of Abs.
Immunoglobulin A important in mucosal defenses and _______.
Immunoglobulin M is the first one ____.
made during an infection
Immunoglobulin ____ is a pentamer.
Immunoglobulin ____ is responsible for agglutination.
Immunoglobulin ___ is found on the surface of b cells.
Very small amounts of immunoglobulin ___ is found in blood serum.
Immunoglobulin D acts as a _____, signals B cells to activate.
Immunoglobulin E is located on _____, _____, and in blood.
Immunoglobulin E is involved in ______.
Immunoglobulin E is typically the ______.
Mature B cells produce IgM and _____ on their surface.
After B cells activation they can undergo class switching to produce ____, _____, and _____.
IgG, IgA, or IgE
The primary immune response has a much longer ______ than the secondary immune response.
____ and ____ are involved in the primary immune response.
IgM and IgG
IgM and IgG are involved in both the primary and secondary immune response, but at much higher level,s in the _____ response.
Mature T cells circulate between lymphatic and circulatory system, migrating to specific T cell areas of the ______ and ______.
lymph and spleen.
Two main roles of the T cell response include response to intracellular foreign antigens and the help B cells to _______.
activate and produce antibodies
T cells mature in the ____.
T cells have two important markers on their surface; t cell receptor (TCR) and _____.
glycoprotein on the surface
The two types of glycoproteins on the surface of T cells?
CD4 or CD8 depending on the type of T cell
CD4 marker is also found on monocytes, macrophages, and _______.
Activation of CD4 cells
Activation of CD8 cells
Cytotoxic T cells or Tc target _______ and ______.
intracellular microbes and cancer cells
Cytotoxic T cells or Tc secretes _____ and ______ to induce apoptosis.
B cells have antibodies that act like _________ that lead to activation of B cell.
T cells have TCR that bind processed antigens in conjunction with MHC molecules on _________.
antigen presenting cells
T cells cannot see or respond to antigen unless it is combined with _____.
There are several types of MHC: class ____, _____, and _____.
Class I, II, III
MHC-I (Class 1) on _____ cells.
MHC-I presents antigens from ______ invaders.
MHC-II is located on _______, ______, and _____.
macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells
MHC II presents antigens from _____ invaders.
Do B and T cells need APCs?
B cells recognize free antigens
T cells cannot recognize "free" antigen (need MHC)
T helper cells are involved with activation of ________ and ______.
b cells and cytotoxic t cells
IL4 induces differentiation of _____ to Th2 cells.
naive helper T cells
IL2 has many roles, activate _____ to become Tc.
Macrophages secrete ____ to activate CD4 cells.
MHC I activates a CD__ T cells.
MHC II activates a CD ___ T cells.
MHC I is the result of a ___ or tumor cell.
MCH II is the result of a ____.
Cell Mediated response
Humoral Ab response
_____ DNA gene segments can be arranged to produce many diverse receptor types.
_____ different B and T cells are produced.
Immune response is highly ____.
Self reacting immune cells are _____ from the body.
Negative selection for _____ reactive B cells.
Positive selection for recognition of MHC is for ____ cells.
Negative selection for MHC + ______ in T cells.
_____ cells lack specificity for antigens.
Natural killer cells circulate through the _____, _____, and blood.
spleen and lungs
The first killer cells to attack abnormal cells are _____.
natural killer cells
Natural killer cells release ______ and induces apoptosis.
Natural killer cells exhibit _____.
Natural Adaptive passive immunity examples
Natural Adaptive active immunity examples
Artificial adaptive active immunity examples
Artificial adaptive passive immunity examples
passive antibody transfer
Whole cell or virus vaccines can be ____, ____ cells or viruses. Also they can be killed cells or ____ viruses.
Anigenic molecules derived from bacterial cells or viruses can be from ____ from cultured cells or viruses or _____.
_____ is the process of reducing virulence.
Attenuated viruses are _____ live vaccines, but they still express normal antigens.
_____ vaccine is an attenuated vaccine.
Live organisms ____ actual infections and have a good response.
Attenuated vaccines can retain some _____ with immunosuppressed individuals.
A risk of attenuated microbes is that they could cross ____.
There is a small chance that attenuated viruses may revert back to the ______ form.
A killer or inactivated vaccines when a ____ has been permanently killed or inactivated.
Killed or inactivated vaccines cannot _____.
Which type of vaccine is safer live or killed?
Antigens present on dead pathogens are still ______ by the immune system and stimulates _____ immunity.
An example of a killed vaccine is the ____.
____ vaccines use only partial fragments of the pathogen present.
Vaccines cannot cause _____.
Subunit vaccines are recognized as _____ antigens.
_____ is an example of a subunit vaccine.
Acellular Pertussis (DTap)
_______ vaccines are typically weaker immune response compared to live.
The antigenicity can be increased in inactive vaccines by administering with a ______.
_____ enhance the immune response.
Adjuvants can cause side effects such as ____ and inflammation.
_____ virus undergoes "antigenic drift" and the vaccine is based epidemiological monitoring.
A flu shot is an _____ vaccine.
A flu mist is an ____ vaccine.
An influenza vaccine contains what three strains.
influenza A strain
influenza B strain
and H1N1 virus as of 2010
_____ vaccines produce an immune response against exotoxins, not microbes.
_____ is a toxin that has been "altered" or inactive.
____ is changed into tetanus toxoid.
DNA vaccines have therapeutic potential for ongoing _______.
chronic viral infections.
___ DNA is used as a vaccine because is can be incorporated into viral infections.
Potential risks with DNA vaccines include _____ stimulation, chronic inflammation, cancer from cell DNA alternation.