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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (137)
1

Humoral immunity B-cells are ______ secreting machines.

antibody

2

Each B-cell has over ____ copies on its surface.

100K

3

Approximately a billion different ____.

B cells

4

B cells circulate through the blood, _____ to specific sites in lymph nodes, spleen, and GALT.

homing

5

A matching B cell is activated by its ______.

matching antigen

6

Following maturation in the bone marrow and _____.

spleen

7

Following maturation in the bone marrow and spleen, B cells remain in ______ until they encounter an antigen and are activated.

peripheral tissues

8

3 possible outcomes from B cell activation

plasma cells
memory b cells
regulatory b cells

9

Plasma cells secret _____.

loads of antibodies

10

Memory B cells are saved for ____.

future use.

11

Regulatory B cells secrete _____.

chemical mediators

12

When B cell proliferation occurs many ___.

copies are made

13

The antibody structure looks like a Y. The top two legs of the Y are called the _____.

fab or fragment of antigen binding

14

The antibody structure looks like a Y. The bottom of the Y is called the ______.

Fc region or constant region

15

An antibody will bind only ____ specific antigen.

one

16

Once the perfect antibody/antigen match is made and binding occurs, the antibody is ____.

activated

17

B cell activation requires ___ signals?

two

18

Signal 1 of B cell activation occurs when the antigen binds to _______ attached to the B cell surface.

antibody

19

Signal 2 of B cell activation occurs via a ______ or _______ mechanism.

T dependent
T independent

20

In B cell activation, _____ are sometimes, but not always involved.

T cells

21

During ____ activation B cells are activated without T cells.

T-independent

22

During ______ activation B cell processes and present antigen + MHC on B cells. T helper cell releases chemical signals that helps to _____ B cells.

T-dependent
fully activate

23

B Cells activated with T helper cells are ______. They begin with a B cell engulfing an antigen, the antigen is then presented and a ____ activates the B cell, which results in proliferation. This results in 2 types of b cells: ______ and ______.

T dependent
T helper
memory cells and plasma cells

24

_________ is the deactivation of B cells and T cells after they have expressed receptors for self-antigens and before they develop into fully immunocompetent lymphocytes.

Clonal deletion

25

B cells go through _____ during development.

education

26

B cells that do not bind "self" molecules are _____.

kept

27

B cells that bind self molecules are ______.

destroyed

28

Plasma cells are ____ factories fro antibodies of the same specificity as the original B cells.

short lived

29

Memory cells seed the ______ circulation, ready for encounters with the same antigen.

lymphatic

30

Regulatory cells proliferate and secrete _____ to regulate the T cell response.

IL-10

31

______ coat the surface of a bacteria, preventing its normal function and reproduction in various ways.

Antibodies

32

Antibodies called opsonins stimulate _______, a process that makes microbes more readily recognized by phagocytes, which dispose of them.

opsonization

33

In _______ reactions, antibodies fill the surface receptors on a virus or the active site on a microbial enzyme to prevent it from attachingnormolly.

neutralization

34

The capacity for antibodies to aggregate or ______, antigens is the consequence of their cross-linking cells or particles into large clumps. This renders microbes immobile and enhances their phagocytosis.

agglutinate

35

The interaction of an antibody with ______ can result in the specific rupturing of cells and some viruses.

complement

36

An _____ is a special type of antibody that neutralizes bacterial exotoxins.

antitoxin

37

Immunoglobulin ____ is the main antibody (80%).

G

38

Immunoglobulin G is found in _____.

serum

39

Immunoglobulin _____ crosses the placenta.

G

40

Immunoglobulin _____ activates complement.

G

41

Immunoglobulin G enhances _____; neutralizes ____ and ______; and protects the fetus and newborns.

phagocytosis
toxins and viruses

42

Immunoglobulin _____ is a dimer.

A

43

Immunoglobulin A is ______.

secreted

44

Immunoglobulin A makes up ___% of serum of Abs.

13%

45

Immunoglobulin A important in mucosal defenses and _______.

colostrum.

46

Immunoglobulin M is the first one ____.

made during an infection

47

Immunoglobulin ____ is a pentamer.

M

48

Immunoglobulin ____ is responsible for agglutination.

M

49

Immunoglobulin ___ is found on the surface of b cells.

D

50

Very small amounts of immunoglobulin ___ is found in blood serum.

D

51

Immunoglobulin D acts as a _____, signals B cells to activate.

receptor

52

Immunoglobulin E is located on _____, _____, and in blood.

mast cells
basophils

53

Immunoglobulin E is involved in ______.

allergic reactions

54

Immunoglobulin E is typically the ______.

least abundant

55

Mature B cells produce IgM and _____ on their surface.

IgD

56

After B cells activation they can undergo class switching to produce ____, _____, and _____.

IgG, IgA, or IgE

57

The primary immune response has a much longer ______ than the secondary immune response.

latent period

58

____ and ____ are involved in the primary immune response.

IgM and IgG

59

IgM and IgG are involved in both the primary and secondary immune response, but at much higher level,s in the _____ response.

secondary

60

Mature T cells circulate between lymphatic and circulatory system, migrating to specific T cell areas of the ______ and ______.

lymph and spleen.

61

Two main roles of the T cell response include response to intracellular foreign antigens and the help B cells to _______.

activate and produce antibodies

62

T cells mature in the ____.

thymus

63

T cells have two important markers on their surface; t cell receptor (TCR) and _____.

glycoprotein on the surface

64

The two types of glycoproteins on the surface of T cells?

CD4 or CD8 depending on the type of T cell

65

CD4 marker is also found on monocytes, macrophages, and _______.

dendritic cells

66

Activation of CD4 cells

?

67

Activation of CD8 cells

?

68

Cytotoxic T cells or Tc target _______ and ______.

intracellular microbes and cancer cells

69

Cytotoxic T cells or Tc secretes _____ and ______ to induce apoptosis.

perforins
granzymes

70

B cells have antibodies that act like _________ that lead to activation of B cell.

receptors

71

T cells have TCR that bind processed antigens in conjunction with MHC molecules on _________.

antigen presenting cells

72

T cells cannot see or respond to antigen unless it is combined with _____.

an MHC

73

There are several types of MHC: class ____, _____, and _____.

Class I, II, III

74

MHC-I (Class 1) on _____ cells.

nucleated

75

MHC-I presents antigens from ______ invaders.

intracellular

76

MHC-II is located on _______, ______, and _____.

macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells

77

MHC II presents antigens from _____ invaders.

extracellular

78

Do B and T cells need APCs?

B cells recognize free antigens
T cells cannot recognize "free" antigen (need MHC)

79

T helper cells are involved with activation of ________ and ______.

b cells and cytotoxic t cells

80

IL4 induces differentiation of _____ to Th2 cells.

naive helper T cells

81

IL2 has many roles, activate _____ to become Tc.

CH8

82

Macrophages secrete ____ to activate CD4 cells.

IL1

83

MHC I activates a CD__ T cells.

CD8

84

MHC II activates a CD ___ T cells.

CD4

85

MHC I is the result of a ___ or tumor cell.

virally infected

86

MCH II is the result of a ____.

free antigen

87

Cell Mediated response

?

88

Humoral Ab response

?

89

_____ DNA gene segments can be arranged to produce many diverse receptor types.

500

90

_____ different B and T cells are produced.

millions/billions

91

Immune response is highly ____.

specific

92

Self reacting immune cells are _____ from the body.

eliminated

93

Negative selection for _____ reactive B cells.

self

94

Positive selection for recognition of MHC is for ____ cells.

T

95

Negative selection for MHC + ______ in T cells.

self antigens

96

_____ cells lack specificity for antigens.

Natural Killer

97

Natural killer cells circulate through the _____, _____, and blood.

spleen and lungs

98

The first killer cells to attack abnormal cells are _____.

natural killer cells

99

Natural killer cells release ______ and induces apoptosis.

granules

100

Natural killer cells exhibit _____.

stress proteins

101

Natural Adaptive passive immunity examples

maternal

102

Natural Adaptive active immunity examples

active infection

103

Artificial adaptive active immunity examples

immunization

104

Artificial adaptive passive immunity examples

passive antibody transfer

105

Whole cell or virus vaccines can be ____, ____ cells or viruses. Also they can be killed cells or ____ viruses.

live, attenuated
inactivated

106

Anigenic molecules derived from bacterial cells or viruses can be from ____ from cultured cells or viruses or _____.

subunits
synthesized subunits

107

_____ is the process of reducing virulence.

attenuation

108

Attenuated viruses are _____ live vaccines, but they still express normal antigens.

weakened

109

_____ vaccine is an attenuated vaccine.

measles

110

Live organisms ____ actual infections and have a good response.

mimic

111

Attenuated vaccines can retain some _____ with immunosuppressed individuals.

virulence

112

A risk of attenuated microbes is that they could cross ____.

the placenta

113

There is a small chance that attenuated viruses may revert back to the ______ form.

virulent

114

A killer or inactivated vaccines when a ____ has been permanently killed or inactivated.

microbe

115

Killed or inactivated vaccines cannot _____.

replicate.

116

Which type of vaccine is safer live or killed?

killed

117

Antigens present on dead pathogens are still ______ by the immune system and stimulates _____ immunity.

recognized
antibody-mediated immunity

118

An example of a killed vaccine is the ____.

influenza shot

119

____ vaccines use only partial fragments of the pathogen present.

subunit (inactivated)

120

Vaccines cannot cause _____.

disease

121

Subunit vaccines are recognized as _____ antigens.

exogenous

122

_____ is an example of a subunit vaccine.

Acellular Pertussis (DTap)

123

_______ vaccines are typically weaker immune response compared to live.

inactive

124

The antigenicity can be increased in inactive vaccines by administering with a ______.

chemical adjuvant

125

_____ enhance the immune response.

adjuvants

126

Adjuvants can cause side effects such as ____ and inflammation.

fever

127

_____ virus undergoes "antigenic drift" and the vaccine is based epidemiological monitoring.

influenza virus

128

A flu shot is an _____ vaccine.

inactivated

129

A flu mist is an ____ vaccine.

attenuated

130

An influenza vaccine contains what three strains.

influenza A strain
influenza B strain
and H1N1 virus as of 2010

131

_____ vaccines produce an immune response against exotoxins, not microbes.

toxoid

132

_____ is a toxin that has been "altered" or inactive.

toxoid

133

____ is changed into tetanus toxoid.

tetanus toxin

134

DNA vaccines have therapeutic potential for ongoing _______.

chronic viral infections.

135

___ DNA is used as a vaccine because is can be incorporated into viral infections.

Naked

136

Potential risks with DNA vaccines include _____ stimulation, chronic inflammation, cancer from cell DNA alternation.

auto immune

137

The price of not vaccinating has caused a decrease in the level of ________.

herd immunity