Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (23)
The goal of _________ is to destroy the infective agent without harming the host's cells.
____ are natural substances released by bacteria and fungi into their environment
In nature, antibiotics act as a _____ to inhibiting other organisms that may cause them harm or steal nutrients/space.
A drug must be able to be easy to administer and able to reach the infectious agent anywhere in the ______.
A drug must be able to be absolutely ____ to the infectious agent and non-toxic to the host.
A drug must be able to remain in the body as long as needed and be safely and easily ____ down and excreted.
_____ is any chemical used in the treatment, relief, or prophylasxis of a disease.
_____ is the use of a drug to prevent imminent infection of a person at risk.
_____ is the use of chemotherapeutic drugs to control infection.
_____ are all inclusive term for any antimicrobial drugs, regardless of its orgin.
_____ are substances produced by the natural metabolic processes of some microorganisms that can inhibit or destroy other microorgansims.
_____ drugs produced entirely by chemical reactions._______ are drugs that are chemically modified in the laboratory after being isolated from natural sources.
semisynthetic drugssynthetic drugs
_______ antimicrobials effective against a limited array of microbial types for example, a drug effective mainly on gram-positive bacteria.
Narrow spectrum (limited spectrum)
Antimicrobials effective against a wide variety of microbial types - for example, a drug effective against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria.
broad spectrum - extended spectrum
Before antimicrobial therapy can begin, 3 factors must be
1. the nature of the microorganism causing the infection
2. the degree of the microorganism’s susceptibility (or
sensitivity) to various drugs
3. the overall medical condition of the patient
Testing for Drug susceptibility is necessary for bacteria commonly showing ______.
Bacteria that commonly showing resistance
and many gram-negative enteric bacilli
Testing fro drug susceptibility is difficult and unnecessary for ___ or ____ infections.
fungal or protozoan
Testing for drug susceptibility is not as necessary if the patient is allergic to certain _____.
The Kirby Bauer ______ test begins with the surface of an agar plate is spread with bacteria. Called a _____.
Small disks containing a prepared amount of ______ are placed on the plate during a Kirby-Bauer test.
The _____ surrounding the discs in a Kirby Bauer test are measured and compared with a standard for each drug.
Zone of Inhibition or ZOI