Flashcards in Chapter 18 Deck (103)
Lymph vessels and lymph nodes filter impurities and has _____.
_____ system is protected, if microbes do invade they gain access to every part of the body.
In the cardiovascular system the bloodstream contains _____.
There is ____ flora in the cardiovascular system.
Growth of microbes in the blood is called ____.
If viruses are present in the blood it is called ______.
If bacteria is present in the bloodstream it is called _____.
If fungi is present in the bloodstream it is called _____.
Inflammation of the endocardium is called ________.
_____ is the inner layer of tissue that lines the heart chambers.
The symptoms of endocarditis are similar to a _____ and include fever, anemia, abnormal, and heartbeat.
_____ endocarditis often occurs when Staphylococcus species enter the bloodstream and attacks a heart valve.
_____ endocarditis is often caused by a Streptococcus species that reside in the body normally.
______ is when organisms are multiplying in the blood.
Many different bacteria and a few ___ can cause septicemia.
The most prominent symptom of septicemia is _____.
Patients with septicemia appear very ill, may have an _____, chills, and gastrointestinal symptoms.
altered mental state
Breathing is affected with _____.
Bleeding from vascular damage can result from _____.
Yersinia pestis is also known as the ____ or _____.
plague or black death
Yersinia pestis is a gram _____.
Yersinia pestis is ____ shaped.
___ were the reservoir for Yersinia pestis.
Fleas were the _____ for Yersinia pestis.
There were several ____ of the black death or Yersinia pestis resulting in _____ killed in 6th century AD.
_____ are effective against Yersinia pestis.
There were ___ manifestations of the Plague.
____ plague is a respiratory manifestations.
____ plague enters the lymph causes inflammation and necrosis of the node.
The bubonic plague is in the ____ form.
_____ plague is bacterial growth in the blood. That results in bleeding into the skin and other organs.
____ plague transmission via fleas from rodents to humans.
_____ plague is transmitted person to person via droplets.
Francisella tularensis is also known as _____ or rabbit fever.
One of the most infectious pathogenic bacterial known (10 cells ?) is ____.
Francisella tularensis or rabbit fever or Tularemia
Transmission of Tularemia (rabbit fever or Francisella tularensis) is via _____ or tick bites.
Tularemia (Francisella tularensis or rabbit fever) spreads ____ to multiple organ systems.
Tularemia can be ___ in greater than 10% of patients.
If aerosol transmission can be created _____ can be a potential bioterroism agent.
Tularemia aka rabbit fever/Francisella tularensis
Symptoms of Tularemia or Francisella tularensis symptoms include fever, ____, and even death.
Depending on the site of infection, Tularemia aka Francisella tularensis aka rabbit fever _____ can occur.
Borrelia burgdorferi is also known as ______.
Borrelia burgdorferi aka lyme disease's biological vectors are ____.
Borrelia burgdorferi aka lyme disease's reservoirs are _____.
Lyme disease or Borrelia burgdorferi evades the immune system by _____.
Lyme disease or Borrelia burgdorferi results in an ____ response which leads to arthritic, cardiac, and neuroligical symptoms.
Early symptoms of lyme disease aka Borrelia burgdorferi is only apparent in some patients called ______.
Erythema migrans (bulls eye rash)
Lyme disease or Borrelia burgdorferi is a _____ disease.
Lyme disease is a progressive syndrome that mimics ______ and rheumatoid conditions.
Other early symptoms of lyme disease and Borrelia burgdorferi include fever, headache, stiff neck, and _____.
The second stage of lyme disease aka borrelia burgdorferi (after the initial/rash), ____ and neurological symptoms develop.
A _____ is transmitted to humans via a tick bite.
Tick secretions prevent the host from feeling ____ from the bite.
Often transmission occurs via _____ because these are small and can feed for long periods of time undetected.
Lyme Disease Infectious Cycle
1. Newly hatched larvae become infected when they feed on small animals such as mice, which harbor the spirochette. The larvae continue development through this year.
2. In the second year the larvae molt into the nymph, an aggressive feeding stage.
3. The nymph takes blood from a number of hosts, including deer and humans.
4. On deer, the nymph matures into adult male and female ticks which mate. The female lays eggs in plant litter, where they hatch and once again begin the cycle.
Infectious Mononucleosis is mostly caused by ______.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
The remainder of cases of Infectious Mononucleosis is caused by _______.
The incubation period for Infectious Mononucleosis is ____.
long, 30-50 days
Infectious Mononucleosis cases may exhibit exudates in the throat, skin rash, and _________.
enlarged spleen and liver
_______ symptoms include sore throat, high fever, cervical lymphadenopathy along with fatigue.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a member of the _____ family.
One of the most commonly found viruses in the world is ______.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
About _____% of the adult population has been exposed to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
Only about ____% of some of whom are exposed actually become infected with Epstein-Barr virus.
Epstein-Barr Virus is contracted through _____ contact with an infected person's _____ (kissing, coughing, sneezing, and sharing utensils, toothbrushes, drinks, etc)
Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers are a divers group of illnesses caused by several ____.
Viral hemorrhagic fevers or VHF are characterized by fever and _____.
Viral hemorrhagic fevers range from mild to _____.
Viral hemorrhagic fevers are found around _____. Specific diseases are limited to specific regions.
Treatment for viral hemorrhagic fevers include _____ and antiviral therapy may be useful.
intensive supportive care
Dengue fever is a type of _____.
viral hemorrhagic fever
______ fever is found in Asia and Central America.
Dengue fever is transmitted through ____.
Victims with Dengue fever vomit and _____ in their feces and urine (capillaries leak) and rashes develop.
Dengue fever is also called _____.
break bone fever
Treatment of Dengue fever
Dengue fever has a _____% mortality rate without treatment.
Ebola and Marburg on specific to _____.
Ebola and Marburg are types of _____.
viral hemorrhagic fevers
Ebola and Marburg are in the same ____.
Ebola and Marburg are contracted from _____ and human to human contact is possible.
Ebola and Marburg cause sever hemorrhage, _____.
Mortality rate fro Ebola and Marbug is ______.
25% to 100%
There is no treatment or vaccine for Ebola and ______. Only supportive care is available.
Lassa fever is specific to ____.
Lassa fever is a type of _____.
viral hemorrhagic fever
____% of asymptomatic or very mild disease of Lassa fever.
____% of Lassa fever cases are sever multisystem disease, but fatal up to ____% of the time.
Lassa fever can develop _____.
A common complication of Lass fever is ______.
Rodents shed the Lass fever virus in ______.
urine and droppings
Treatment of Lass fever is ______.
antiviral drug treatment
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) is known as _______.
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) also known as Rickettsia rickettsii is gram _____.
Rickettsia rickettsii is an _____ parasite.
______ is prevalent in South East U.S. but it can be found throughout U.S. and Canada.
Rickettsia rickettsii is a _____ via a tick bite.
___% of individuals will die from Rickettsia rickettsii infection.
Early symptoms of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever include a sustained fever, chills, headache, and ______.
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever presents as a distinctive spotted rash within _____.
In sever cases of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, _____ merge and become necrotic.
Other manifestations of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever include cardiovascular disruption, delirium, convulsions, _____ and coma.