Chapter 18 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18 Deck (103)
1

Lymph vessels and lymph nodes filter impurities and has _____.

leukocytes

2

_____ system is protected, if microbes do invade they gain access to every part of the body.

cardiovascular

3

In the cardiovascular system the bloodstream contains _____.

circulating leukocytes.

4

There is ____ flora in the cardiovascular system.

no normal

5

Growth of microbes in the blood is called ____.

septicemia

6

If viruses are present in the blood it is called ______.

viremia

7

If bacteria is present in the bloodstream it is called _____.

bacteremia

8

If fungi is present in the bloodstream it is called _____.

fungemia

9

Inflammation of the endocardium is called ________.

endocarditis

10

_____ is the inner layer of tissue that lines the heart chambers.

endocardium

11

The symptoms of endocarditis are similar to a _____ and include fever, anemia, abnormal, and heartbeat.

endocardium

12

_____ endocarditis often occurs when Staphylococcus species enter the bloodstream and attacks a heart valve.

acute

13

_____ endocarditis is often caused by a Streptococcus species that reside in the body normally.

subacute

14

______ is when organisms are multiplying in the blood.

septicemia

15

Many different bacteria and a few ___ can cause septicemia.

fungi

16

The most prominent symptom of septicemia is _____.

fever

17

Patients with septicemia appear very ill, may have an _____, chills, and gastrointestinal symptoms.

altered mental state

18

Breathing is affected with _____.

septicemia

19

Bleeding from vascular damage can result from _____.

septicemia

20

Yersinia pestis is also known as the ____ or _____.

plague or black death

21

Yersinia pestis is a gram _____.

negative.

22

Yersinia pestis is ____ shaped.

rod

23

___ were the reservoir for Yersinia pestis.

Rodents

24

Fleas were the _____ for Yersinia pestis.

biological vectors

25

There were several ____ of the black death or Yersinia pestis resulting in _____ killed in 6th century AD.

pandemics
100 million

26

_____ are effective against Yersinia pestis.

antibiotics

27

There were ___ manifestations of the Plague.

3

28

____ plague is a respiratory manifestations.

Pneumonic

29

____ plague enters the lymph causes inflammation and necrosis of the node.

Bubonic

30

The bubonic plague is in the ____ form.

bubos

31

_____ plague is bacterial growth in the blood. That results in bleeding into the skin and other organs.

Septicemic

32

____ plague transmission via fleas from rodents to humans.

Bubonic plague

33

_____ plague is transmitted person to person via droplets.

Pneumonic

34

Francisella tularensis is also known as _____ or rabbit fever.

Tularemia

35

One of the most infectious pathogenic bacterial known (10 cells ?) is ____.

Francisella tularensis or rabbit fever or Tularemia

36

Transmission of Tularemia (rabbit fever or Francisella tularensis) is via _____ or tick bites.

skin breaks

37

Tularemia (Francisella tularensis or rabbit fever) spreads ____ to multiple organ systems.

systemically

38

Tularemia can be ___ in greater than 10% of patients.

fatal

39

If aerosol transmission can be created _____ can be a potential bioterroism agent.

Tularemia aka rabbit fever/Francisella tularensis

40

Symptoms of Tularemia or Francisella tularensis symptoms include fever, ____, and even death.

lethargy

41

Depending on the site of infection, Tularemia aka Francisella tularensis aka rabbit fever _____ can occur.

skin lesions

42

Borrelia burgdorferi is also known as ______.

lyme disease

43

Borrelia burgdorferi aka lyme disease's biological vectors are ____.

ticks

44

Borrelia burgdorferi aka lyme disease's reservoirs are _____.

rodents

45

Lyme disease or Borrelia burgdorferi evades the immune system by _____.

changing antigens

46

Lyme disease or Borrelia burgdorferi results in an ____ response which leads to arthritic, cardiac, and neuroligical symptoms.

autoimmune

47

Early symptoms of lyme disease aka Borrelia burgdorferi is only apparent in some patients called ______.

Erythema migrans (bulls eye rash)

48

Lyme disease or Borrelia burgdorferi is a _____ disease.

nonfatal

49

Lyme disease is a progressive syndrome that mimics ______ and rheumatoid conditions.

neuromuscular

50

Other early symptoms of lyme disease and Borrelia burgdorferi include fever, headache, stiff neck, and _____.

dizziness

51

The second stage of lyme disease aka borrelia burgdorferi (after the initial/rash), ____ and neurological symptoms develop.

cardiac

52

A _____ is transmitted to humans via a tick bite.

zoonosis

53

Tick secretions prevent the host from feeling ____ from the bite.

any pain

54

Often transmission occurs via _____ because these are small and can feed for long periods of time undetected.

nymph ticks

55

Lyme Disease Infectious Cycle

1. Newly hatched larvae become infected when they feed on small animals such as mice, which harbor the spirochette. The larvae continue development through this year.
2. In the second year the larvae molt into the nymph, an aggressive feeding stage.
3. The nymph takes blood from a number of hosts, including deer and humans.
4. On deer, the nymph matures into adult male and female ticks which mate. The female lays eggs in plant litter, where they hatch and once again begin the cycle.

56

Infectious Mononucleosis is mostly caused by ______.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)

57

The remainder of cases of Infectious Mononucleosis is caused by _______.

cytomegalovirus (CMV)

58

The incubation period for Infectious Mononucleosis is ____.

long, 30-50 days

59

Infectious Mononucleosis cases may exhibit exudates in the throat, skin rash, and _________.

enlarged spleen and liver

60

_______ symptoms include sore throat, high fever, cervical lymphadenopathy along with fatigue.

Infectious Mononucleosis

61

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a member of the _____ family.

Herpesviridae

62

One of the most commonly found viruses in the world is ______.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)

63

About _____% of the adult population has been exposed to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).

95%

64

Only about ____% of some of whom are exposed actually become infected with Epstein-Barr virus.

20-40%

65

Epstein-Barr Virus is contracted through _____ contact with an infected person's _____ (kissing, coughing, sneezing, and sharing utensils, toothbrushes, drinks, etc)

direct
saliva

66

Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers are a divers group of illnesses caused by several ____.

RNA viruses

67

Viral hemorrhagic fevers or VHF are characterized by fever and _____.

bleeding disorders

68

Viral hemorrhagic fevers range from mild to _____.

life threatening

69

Viral hemorrhagic fevers are found around _____. Specific diseases are limited to specific regions.

the world

70

Treatment for viral hemorrhagic fevers include _____ and antiviral therapy may be useful.

intensive supportive care

71

Dengue fever is a type of _____.

viral hemorrhagic fever

72

______ fever is found in Asia and Central America.

Dengue

73

Dengue fever is transmitted through ____.

mosquitoes

74

Victims with Dengue fever vomit and _____ in their feces and urine (capillaries leak) and rashes develop.

pass blood

75

Dengue fever is also called _____.

break bone fever

76

Treatment of Dengue fever

?

77

Dengue fever has a _____% mortality rate without treatment.

15%

78

Ebola and Marburg on specific to _____.

Africa

79

Ebola and Marburg are types of _____.

viral hemorrhagic fevers

80

Ebola and Marburg are in the same ____.

viral family

81

Ebola and Marburg are contracted from _____ and human to human contact is possible.

infected animals

82

Ebola and Marburg cause sever hemorrhage, _____.

organ failure

83

Mortality rate fro Ebola and Marbug is ______.

25% to 100%

84

There is no treatment or vaccine for Ebola and ______. Only supportive care is available.

Marbrug

85

Lassa fever is specific to ____.

Africa

86

Lassa fever is a type of _____.

viral hemorrhagic fever

87

____% of asymptomatic or very mild disease of Lassa fever.

80%

88

____% of Lassa fever cases are sever multisystem disease, but fatal up to ____% of the time.

20%
50%

89

Lassa fever can develop _____.

severe hemorrhage

90

A common complication of Lass fever is ______.

deafness

91

Rodents shed the Lass fever virus in ______.

urine and droppings

92

Treatment of Lass fever is ______.

antiviral drug treatment

93

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) is known as _______.

Rickettsia rickettsii

94

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) also known as Rickettsia rickettsii is gram _____.

negative

95

Rickettsia rickettsii is an _____ parasite.

obligate intracellular

96

______ is prevalent in South East U.S. but it can be found throughout U.S. and Canada.

Rickettsia rickettsii

97

Rickettsia rickettsii is a _____ via a tick bite.

zoonosis

98

___% of individuals will die from Rickettsia rickettsii infection.

3-5%

99

Early symptoms of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever include a sustained fever, chills, headache, and ______.

muscular pain

100

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever presents as a distinctive spotted rash within _____.

3-5 days

101

In sever cases of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, _____ merge and become necrotic.

lesions

102

Other manifestations of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever include cardiovascular disruption, delirium, convulsions, _____ and coma.

tremor

103

_______ is the treatment of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

antibiotic therapy