Flashcards in Chapter 12 Section 3 & 4 Deck (56):
Big Business would not have been possible without the ___________
People who own corporations are called
Investing in new technologies, hiring large workforces, and puchasing many machines enabled corporations to achieve
Economies of Scale
Big Businesses had high fixed cost and low operating costs, which gave them several ___________
Many companies did not like the intesnse _________ that had been forced upon them
to stop prices from falling...many companies organized ___________ to keep prices at a certain level
The life of ___________ illustrated many factors that led to the rise of big business in the U.S.
Born poor Carnegie eventually opened a ______ business in Pittsburgh.
Successful business leaders pushed for.............
Who achieved most complete horizontal integration?
John D. Rockefeller
IN 1882, Standard Oil formed the first ________, a new way of merging businesses that did not violate laws against monopolies.
Many companies immeditely used the law to create a new organization, a ________ company
One of the most successful investment banker of the era was.......
What was the first billion dollar company in America?
what was the first advertising company?
NWAYER and SON
What added to tensions between workers and employers?
What were the two basic types of industrial workers in the 1800s?
craft workers and common laborers
What type of workers formed trade unions?
Employers viewed unions as __________
Business leaders particularly opposed
What is a contract called that says you will never join a union while working for this company?
Workers who tried to strike were fired and placed on a
When workers formed a union, companies used what to break them>
Unions suffered from the perception that they were
in the 1800's the ideas of Karl Marx, known as _________ became very influential..
What railroad cut their wages for a third time
Baltimore and Ohio
How many railroad workers striked at one time?
Who opposed strikes preferring to use boycotts?
Knights of Labor
Knights of Labor also supported what
in the spring of 1886 what happend that undermined the reputation of the knights?
the Haymarket Riot
under what strike did a federal court issue an injuntion, directing the union to halt the boycott
What does (AFL) stand for?
American Federation of Labor
Who was the first president of the AFL
THE AFL had three main goals..
1 Push for closed shop
2. promoted 8 hour work day
3. tried to convince companies to recognize unions and agree to collective bargaining.
In 1905, a group of labor radicals created the what?
(IWW) Industrial Workers of the War
by 1900 women made up what percent of the workforce?
One of the most famous labor leaders of the era was....
Mary Harris Jones
In 1900 what two types of immigrants worked in the clothing business in New York City and founded the International Ladies' Garment Workers Union
Jewish and Italian
In 1903, Who established the Womens' Trade Union League
Mary Kenney O'Sullivan, Leonora O'Reilly, Jane Adams, and Lillian Wald
used for making high-quality steel efficiently and cheaply
Agreements to amintain prices at a certain level
When a company owns all of the different businesses on which id depends for for its operation
became on of the most successful retail chains in American History
When a single company achieves control of an entire market
Loans, Mortgages, and taxes are examples of a companys...
Combining many firms engaged in the same type of business into one corporation is called
N.W. Ayer and Son developed bold new formats for what.
Process whereby an impartial third party helps workers and management reach an agreement
a rise in the value of money
First national assciation dedicated to women's labor issues
Women's Trade union League
Unions limited to people with specific skills
First nationwide union
Knights of Labor
What did several railroads announce in July of 1877 that Triggered the first nationwidelabor protest?
The first leader of the American Federation of Labor, Samuel Grompers, believed that unions should stay out of
Workers who tried to organize a union or strike were often fired and placed on a list called the