Chapter 12-The Heart Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12-The Heart Deck (202)
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1

Which patients are more prone to mitral valve prolapse

-Female 7:1

2

What is restrictive cardiomyopathy secondary to

-Deposition of amyloid in the wall
-Fibrosis due to radiation

3

During a MI, what is the time frame when there is:
-Onset of ATP depletion

Seconds

4

Very generally, what is the clinical presentation of a right to left shunt

Cyanosis

5

What are the increases in VSD

Increase in pulmonary pressure and blood flow

*Because some of the pressure and flow from the left ventricle is going into the right ventricle and pulmonary arteries

6

Which aortic condition will see an accelerated calcification course and subsequent stenosis

Bicuspid aortic valve shows an accelerated course

7

What are the effects of chronic rheumatic fever

MITRAL STENOSIS**** aka fish mouth appearance
-caused by mitral leaflet thickening, fusion of commissures, thickening of tendinous cords (does not allow valves to open)

-LA enlargement leads to Afib and thromboembolic events

8

What are the light microscopy features of an MI after:
12-24 hours

-Pkynosis of nuclei
-Contraction band of necrosis
-Hypereosinophilia
-Early neutrophils

9

What are the gross features of an MI after:
-12-24 hours

Dark mottling

10

What is present in the heart with acute rheumatic fever

-Pancarditis with Aschoff bodies/nodules which are granulomatous inflammation centered around vessels
-Fibrinoid necrosis of the endocardium and left sided valve with vegetations present

11

What are the morphological findings in a patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

-myocardial hypertrophy, especially the septal region (produces banana shape, blocks outflow tract)
-Myocytes are in disarray

12

What is the treatment for an acute infective endocarditis

Surgery and antibiotics

13

What is the cause of Naxos syndrome

Mutations in the gene encoding the desmosome associated protein plakoglobin

14

What is the qualification for congestive heart failure

-When the heart is unable to meet the peripheral demand for blood
-Requires increased filling pressure in order to meet the demand for blood

15

Why is neovasculature seen on the thickening valves during chronic rheumatic fever

Because can no longer get the blood via diffusion

16

Which bacteria tends to affect prosthetic valves

S. Epidermidis

17

Which metabolic issue is strongly associated with dilated cardiomyopathy

Hereditary hemochromatosis (HFE) leading to iron overload

18

What is the prognosis of aortic stenosis

-5 years after developing angina
-3 years after developing syncope
-2 years after developing CHF

19

What is the most common primary cardiac tumor and what is their usual location

Myxomas usually in the region of fossa ovalis

20

Most hereditary conditions of heart arrhythmias are what inheritance

Autosomal dominant

21

What are the organisms commonly involved in infective endocarditis

-S viridans
-S aureus
-S epidermidis
-HACEK (Hemophilus, actinobacillis, Cardiobacterium, eikenella, kingella

22

How will a myxoma sound upon auscultation

Tumor “plop”

23

What are the clinical complications as a result of a VSD

-Right ventricular hypertrophy
-Pulmonary hypertension, which can lead to reverse flow into a right to left shunt, leading to cyanosis

24

What is acute infective endocarditis defined by

Rapidly progressing destructive infection of a previously normal valve

25

What is the characteristic of subacute infective endocarditis

Infective endocarditis is slower progressing infection of a previously deformed valve

26

What is the general cause of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Genetic disorder that leads to myocardial hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction with reduced SV and outflow obstruction

27

Which form of VSD is most common

Membranous VSD

28

What are the gross features of an MI after:
2 months

Scarring is complete

29

What are the conditions that can lead to abnormalities of leaflets and commissures leading to mitral regurgitation

-Postinflammatory scarring
-Infective endocarditis
-Mitral valve prolapse
-Drugs

30

ASD is most commonly caused by what embryological defect

Secundum (90%)
-May be multiple or fenestrated