Chapter 14-15 - Psychotic Disorders Flashcards Preview

Psych 305 > Chapter 14-15 - Psychotic Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 14-15 - Psychotic Disorders Deck (41):
1

What are positive symptoms of schizophrenia?

Presence or addition of behavior
*Hallucinations
*Delusions
*Strange speech
*Unusual motor behaviors

2

What are negative symptoms of schizophrenia?

Absence of behavior
*Flat affect
*Lack of motivation
*Social withdrawal

3

What is acute schizophrenia or type I?

*More sudden onset of symptoms (within a week or month)
*More positive symptoms than negative

4

What is chronic schizophrenia or type II?

*More prolonged onset and show a prolonged history of withdrawal from functioning
*More negative symptoms than positive

5

What are hallucinations? What are the most common types?

False perceptions - most common are auditory

6

What are delusions? What are the most common types?

Deeply entrenched false beliefs - most common are persecution, thought broadcasting, thought insertion, delusions of reference

7

What is the loosening of associations?

Topics shifting quickly without meaning - product of disordered thinking

8

What is odd speech?

Word salad, clanging - incomprehensible mix of words

9

What is inappropriate emotion?

Emotions inappropriate to the environment or to what is currently happening

10

What is the loss of ego boundaries?

Sense of merging with one's environment/with others

11

What are strange motor behaviors?

Hyperactivity or a lack of motor behavior - purposeless behavior

12

What are the main characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia?

*Hallucinations
*Delusions
*Odd speech
*Loss of ego boundaries
*Strange motor behaviors
*Loosening of associations
*Inappropriate emotion
*Lack of motivation
*Inappropriate social behavior

13

What are the clusters of schizophrenic symptoms?

*Catatonia
*Disorganized
*Paranoid
*Undifferentiated
*Residual

14

What is the catatonia cluster of schizo symptoms?

*Bizarre or unusual body movements - lack of movement/rigidity
*Waxy flexibility (position someone and they will hold that position for hours)
*Lots of negative symptoms

15

What is the disorganized cluster of schizo symptoms?

*Most bizarre and obvious symptoms
*Incoherent communications, inappropriate affect, no coherent themes to delusions/hallucinations

16

What are other psychotherapies for schizo?

*CBT: may be useful with some in population
*ACT: Acceptance Commitment Therapy - studies show it can be effective. Doesn't decrease hallucinations/delusions, but decreases hospitalizations

17

What is the undifferentiated cluster of schizo symptoms?

Symptoms mixed and don't fit into other categories

18

What is the residual cluster of schizo symptoms?

Strictly for diagnosis: no new prominent symptoms, still some lingering

19

What are the phases of schizo?

*Prodromal phase - period of progressive deterioration of behavior
*Active phase - period of prominent intense symptoms (duration of at least 1 month)
*Residual phase - continuing symptoms of disturbance, not as intense

20

What are some examples of prodromal phase behaviors?

*Social withdrawal
*Decrease in work performance
*Decrease in personal grooming
*Increase in odd behaviors

21

Treatment of schizophrenia

Neuroleptics

22

What is the possible sociocultural explanation for the difference in prognosis in developing vs developed countries?

Developing countries are more collectivistic --> tend to treat and work with schizo patients better than developed countries

23

What are cultural issues in schizo?

*Schizo in Western cultures report more depressive symptoms, thought broadcasting, thought-insertion, more affective/cognitive.
*Schizo in non-Western report more visual + auditory (directed) hallucinations
*Schizo diagnosed often among AA, Asians, Hispanics

24

What are the psychodynamic treatments for schizo?

Psychodynamic treatment is not effective, can maybe even feed into delusions

25

What are other psychotherapies for schizo?

*CBT: may be useful with some in population
*ACT: Acceptance Commitment Therapy - studies show it can be effective. Doesn't decrease hallucinations/delusions, but decreases hospitalizations

26

What are behavioral therapies for schizo?

*Social training - train in social skills
*Behavior modifications - using operant techniques, "token economy"

27

What is the possible cause of positive symptoms?

Dopamine hypothesis - excess DA at the synapse

28

Types of delusional disorders

*Erotomania - one of higher status is in love with you
*Grandiose delusional disorder - one has inflated worth/power
*Jealous delusional disorder - one's partner is unfaithful
*Persecutory delusional disorder - one is being persecuted
*Somatic delusional disorder - delusion about body (body odor, rotting away)

29

What is the difference between schizophrenia prognosis in developed vs developing countries?

Schizo patients from developed countries have poorer prognosis

30

What is the possible biological explanation for the difference in prognosis in developing vs developed countries?

Type II is a more virulent form of schizo and is often seen in developed countries - related to maternal/perinatal problems. Type I is benign and more often seen in developing countries. With our medical tech, we have more type II schizo --> poorer prognosis. Therefore developing countries have more type I bc they can't support type II with tech

31

Causes of psychotic disorders

*Biological findings
*Unusual family relations or communication (negativity, emotionally expressive, intrusive, fragmented communication)
*Stressful events may precipitate in first psychotic episode (diathesis-stress model)

32

What are cultural issues in schizo?

*Schizo in Western cultures report more depressive symptoms, thought broadcasting, thought-insertion, more affective/cognitive.
*Schizo in non-Western report more visual + auditory (directed) hallucinations
*Schizo diagnosed often among AA, Asians, Hispan

33

What is schizoaffective disorder?

*Overlap between schizo and mood disorder
*Must experience psychotic symptoms even in absence of mood disorder
*Better prognosis than schizo, function at higher level

34

What is brief psychotic disorder?

*Symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, prominent affective symptoms
*Symptoms last > 1 day,

35

What is schizophreniform disorder?

*Bridge between brief psychotic and schizo
*Same symptoms as schizo but last 1-6 months
*Is provisional diagnosis - matter of duration

36

What are delusional disorders?

Single striking delusion - could be conceivably true

37

Types of delusional disorders

*Erotomania - one of higher status is in love with you
*Grandiose delusional disorder - one has inflated worth/power
*Jealous delusional disorder - one's partner is unfaithful
*Persecutory delusional disorder - one is being persecuted
*Somatic delusional disorder - delusion about body (body odor, rotting away)

38

What is shared psychotic disorder?

*One or more people develop psychotic symptoms from close association with psychotic person
*Buying into someone's delusions

39

Biological causes of psychotic disorders

*Too much dopamine in synapse, more related to pos symptoms, effected more strongly by meds on DA neurons
*Enlarged ventricles - evidence toward cortical atrophy (neg symptoms)

40

Causes of psychotic disorders

*Biological findings
*Unusual family relations or communication (negativity, emotionally expressive, intrusive, fragmented communication)
*Stressful events may precipitate in first psychotic episode (diathesis-stress model)

41

What are schizo spectrum disorders?

More likely to occur in families of individuals with schizo
*Schizotypal PD - magical thinking
*Schizoid PD - removed/distant/uncaring
*Paranoid PD
*Schizophreniform