Chapter 12: Substance Use Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12: Substance Use Disorders Deck (24):

What are the categories of symptoms in substance use disorders?

*Impaired control
*Social impairment
*Rising use
*Pharmacological criteria


What is compensatory response?

Equal and opposite physical response to counteract the effects of a substance to maintain homeostasis


What is the severity rating of drug use disorders?

*Mild: 2-3 criteria
*Moderate: 4-5 criteria
*Severe: 6+ criteria


What is the difference between dependence and abuse?

*Abuse: psychological and behavioral symptoms
*Dependence: tolerance, withdrawal, compulsive use


Why was the DSM-IV distinction between dependence and abuse removed in the DSM-5 and instead calling it "substance use disorder"?

Due to confusion surrounding "dependence" - defining addiction as a substance use disorder is more inclusive way to ID people who need help. Also that there is not much real distinction between abuse and dependence


What are substance-induced disorders?

When ingestion of a substance results in serious behavioral, psychological, and physiological signs and symptoms


Diagnostic criteria for substance-induced disorders?

Specifies that the associated symptoms are reversible and there is physical evidence that it was recently ingested


What is substance intoxication?

*Symptoms vary greatly depending on the substance
*Symptoms often resemble other disorders - you don't know if person is intoxicated or actually going through a psychological disorder


Prevalence of alcohol related disorders

*Prevalence rate highest between 21-34 years old
*Males have higher rates than females
*High rate of co-morbidity with other disorders - using alcohol as self-medication


What is dual diagnosis?

Substance use disorder in addition to another disorder


What is pharmacological dependence?

More typical at the more severe end of the spectrum - tolerance, withdrawal


What constitutes abuse of alcohol?

*Failure to complete committed tasks - usually due to intoxication or hangover
*May also involve legal problems - disorderly conduct, DUI's, etc


Diagnosis of alcohol abuse

*Recent ingestion of alcohol
*Clinically significant maladaptive behavior or psychological changes (aggressive behavior, mood lability (swings), impaired functioning)
*Slurred speech, incoordination, unsteady gait, nystagmus, impairment in attention/memory, stupor, coma


Biological causes of alcohol behavior

*Genetically inherited
*Differences in metabolism of alcohol


Psychosocial causes of alcohol behavior

*Emphasis on oral dependency
*Problems during oral stage of development


Behavioral causes of alcohol behavior

*Positively or negatively reinforced from previous drinking - operant conditioning
*Multiple regulation theory - classical conditioning


What is multiple regulation theory?

Classical conditioning - person pairs ingestion of alcohol with "good" feelings, pairs not drinking with neutral or "bad" feelings, used to describe alcohol, cigarette smoking, etc


Cognitive causes of alcohol behavior

Cognitive expectancies - expect experience to be fun/positive, and by virtue of expectancies it is fun


What are delirium tremens?

Occurs during alcoholism treatment - person may develop hallucinations/delusions which require monitoring and inpatient care


What is the AA-disease model?

Alcoholism is a disease so alcohol triggers onset of alcoholism. Thus, the key is complete abstinence from alcohol


What is the learned behavior model?

*Says that problem drinking is a learned behavior, so behavior can be modified.
*Uses "harm reduction" program - does not prescribe abstinence
*What can we do to help you drink and have it remain a positive experience, not go into a negative experience
*Assumes people will drink - teaches them to drink at a level that reduces harm


What is the only non-substance addiction in the DSM?

*Gambling - has signs of tolerance and withdrawal
*Life is centered around gambling, it is used as coping
*Behavior continues after significant loss


What is internet use addiction?

Under DSM-5 as "conditions that require further research"


What are diagnostic criteria for internet use addiction?

*How often you lose sleep, try to cut down time but fail
*Tolerance and withdrawal, starts off and spends more and more time
*Take person off internet, get extreme reaction