Chapter 3 - Models of Abnormality Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 - Models of Abnormality Deck (58):
1

Two ways to study behavior genetics

Pedigree studies, twin studies

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Pedigree studies

Genealogical studies, studies family background and genes

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Concordance

The rate at which twins share the same trait

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Discordance

When both twins do not share the same trait

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Identical vs fraternal twins?

Identical twins are monozygotic, while fraternal twins are dizygotic

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What causes disorders from a biological standpoint?

Disorders associated with a lack of NTs or excess of NTs at the synapse, or heightened sensitivity of receptors in synapse

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Characteristic hemispherality

Some may have relatively more activity in one hemisphere during rest

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Why is characteristic hemispherality important for disorders?

Davidson/Tomarken proposed that right hemisphere people are closer to the threshold than others for negative states

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Characteristics of the left hemisphere

*Verbal, speech math, logic
*Relatively more active with joy, happiness
*Positive emotions

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Characteristics of the right hemisphere

*Imagery, artistic skills, creativity
*Relatively more active with sadness, disgust, anger
*Negative emotions

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What is psychoneuroimmunology?

Interactions among nervous, endocrine, and immune systems

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Role of significant stressors on the immune system

Stress -> Corticosteroids -> decreased immune system function -> illness

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Id

Instinctual, in unconscious, is present at birth, unrealistic, instant gratification

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Ego

Realistic (only one), delays instant gratification

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Superego

Internalization of moral code/values

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Two subsystems of superego

*Conscience: internalization of what is wrong
*Ego-ideal: internalization of what is right

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Ego-strength

Healthy personality, grounded in reality, needs are met realistically, better able to cope

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Freud structure of the mind

*Preconscious: not currently in awareness, but can gain access
*Conscious: in current awareness
*Unconscious: below level of awareness and difficult to gain access

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Psychic determinism

All behavior overt and covert is caused (determined) by unconscious variables and events from earlier in life

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Displacement

Defense mechanism in which unacceptable feelings/attitudes unconsciously displaced onto something/someone else

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Projection

Defense mechanism in which unacceptable thoughts/feelings are projected onto others - attribute unacceptable thoughts/feelings to other people

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Intellectualization

Defense mechanism in which you view emotional challenges as an intellectual experience

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Psychodynamic causes of maladaptive behavior

1) Rigidly sticking to defense mechanisms
2) Conflicts between Id and Superego overwhelm Ego
3) Vulnerability due to early life experiences
4) Fixation on one psychosexual stage

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How did neoanalytic theorists differ from Freud?

1) More emphasis on sociocultural factors
2) More spirituality
3) More positive view of human nature
4) Belief in freedom of choice (not all unconsciously determined)
5) Considered more of the conscious aspects of personality

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Basic premise of behavioral models

Behavior and personality develop through the learning process

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Classical conditioning

Pairing neutral stimulus with one that naturally elicits a response so that the previously neutral stimulus now also elicits the response

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Stimuli and responses in classical conditioning

*UCS - original natural stimulus, doesn't have to be learned
*UCR - original natural response, doesn't have to be learned
*CS - previously neutral stimulus, now paired with UCS
*CR - learned response to CS

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What is the result of fixation?

When a person gets fixated in a psychosexual stage, portion of psychic energy is attached to that stage and can't be used for other functions

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Oral fixation

Over/under gratification of one's oral needs, results in person that is very needy and dependent

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Anal fixation

When you obtain a sense of control, results in person that is very controlling/clean/organized (anal retentive). Anal expulsive is the opposite of anal retentive

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Phallic fixation

Problems identifying with same sex parent, involves development of one's sexual identity. Fixation results in promiscuity

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Who are the contemporary psychoanalytic theorists?

Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Karen Horney

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Generalization of learning

When other stimuli similar to the CS elicit the response (after an accident, not only do buses trigger a reaction but also all vehicles)

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Extinction

Cessation of a response - exposure to CS without UCS (get back on the bus)

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Counter-conditioning

Pair something pleasant with unpleasant stimulus

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Aversive Counter-Conditioning

Pair noxious stimulus with undesired response

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Operant conditioning

Organism "operates" on environment in some way and receives response from environment

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Reinforcement vs punishment

*Reinforcement: increasing a behavior by delivering something desired or removing something undesired
*Punishment: decreasing a behavior by delivering something undesired or removing something desired

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Negative vs positive (in terms of conditioning)

*Negative: Increases behavior by removing something not desired
*Positive: Increases behavior by giving something desired

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How does shaping work in terms of operant conditioning?

Successively reinforce steps toward target behavior

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How does extinction happen with operant behavior?

Remove reinforcement

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Reinforcers

Anything that increases likelihood of behavior

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Social learning

Behaviors acquired through relations with others and observations of others

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Modeling (Vicarious learning)

Learn by watching others perform behavior

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What makes conditions more powerful for modeling?

*Model is similar to learner
*Learner is dependent on model
*Model is rewarded for behavior
*There is uncertainty about appropriate behavior

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Implicit learning

When interpretation of event shapes one's behaviors or attitudes toward behavior

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Cognitive perspective focus

Internal processes/thoughts, thoughts produce and are initiated by behavior

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Cognitive causes of maladaptive behavior

*Unfortunate experiences + Maladaptive thought/beliefs
*Schemata cannot accommodate current life experiences
*Irrational and maladaptive thoughts/beliefs

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Ellis's Rational-Emotive Therapy

A - Antecedent (event, "trigger")
B - Belief (about event)
C - Consequences (emotional) of belief
D - Disputing maladaptive thoughts/behaviors

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Humanistic/Existentialist perspective focus

Self, dignity, inherent goodness, striving towards self-actualization to be all that you can be

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Roger's person centered theory

*One's self image needs to be congruent with life experiences
*Problems come from discrepancy between one's real and ideal selves

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Existential theories

*Basic tenet: take responsibility for one's actions and freedom of choice
*Living authentically (living by one's own goals) vs living inauthentically (living by goals set by others)

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Causes of maladaptive behavior under phenomenological perspectives

*Being held back from achieving one's full potential
*Incongruence between self-image and life expectancies
*Living inauthentically

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Focus of multicultural models of maladaptive behavior

Cultural context of behaviors

55

to feel or not to feel

a feel feels as feely by any other name

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Criticisms of multicultural model

*Not empirically based, don't lend well to empirical study, difficult to obtain large numbers of subjects
*Cultural phenomena are culture specific - cannot generalize findings to larger numbers of symptoms, individualistic vs collectivistic

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Inferiority model

Because other groups are different from the majority, they are inferior. The Ball Curve found IQ scores lower in African Americans, posited that that was due to genetics

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Deprivation/Deficit model

Different groups score lower due to neural deprivation