Flashcards in Chapter 11: Eating Disorders Deck (30):
What is restrictive type anorexia?
Restricts eating and/or overexercises
What is binging/purging type anorexia?
Sounds like bulimia but isn't - person is still significantly underweight (
Characteristics of anorexics
*Need for control
*Lower self esteem
*Obsessed with food
*Distorted body image
Background of anorexics
Peak ages of onset
*Bimodal distribution of 14 and 18 - high school and college start at these ages
*Range of 15-19 years
Treatments for anorexia
*Family therapy - Maudsley approach
What are some operant techniques for treating anorexia?
Positive and negative reinforcements to modify maladaptive behaviors such as disordered eating behaviors, using CBT treatment
What is the irony in anorexia treatment?
When some are recovering, it can increase health risks for some due to the weakening of the heart from anorexia that can lead to the heart being less able to support a heavier weight that results from recovery
What are comorbid characteristics of anorexia restricting type?
What are comorbid characteristics of anorexia bingeing/purging type?
What is the major distinction between anorexia and bulimia?
Weight - bulimics may be normal or overweight
What are compensatory behaviors?
Behavior that compensates for food intake
What is exercise bulimia?
Person's compensatory behavior is exercise rather than throwing up or laxatives. For hours a day person is compelled to go to the gym and compensate for eating
Diagnostic criteria for bulimia
*DSM-5: at least 1 episode a week for at least 3 months
*Evidence for impulse control problems - more evidence for problems with substance abuse, gambling, etc.
What are comorbid mental disorders with bulimia?
*Substance use disorders
*Borderline personality disorder
What is the central issue for all eating disorders?
*Anorexia: being in control
*Bulimia: being out of control
What is Binge Eating Disorder (BED)?
Binges in eating without purging
*Key: no compensatory behaviors
What are the diagnostic criteria for BED?
*Eating more rapidly than normal
*Eating large amounts of food
*Secretive about eating
*May eat large amounts when not hungry
*Feelings of a lack of control over eating
*History of episodes at least 1 day per week for at least 3 months
Severity rating of BED
*Mild - 1-3 episodes per week
*Moderate - 4-7 episodes per week
*Severe - 8-13 episodes per week
*Extreme - 14 and above episodes per week
What is the prevalence rate of BED?
*Females 1.5 times more likely than males
*Clinical Samples: majority is white females
*Community Samples: black and white females show equal prevalence rate
What are cultural differences in BED?
African American women are:
*Less likely to be treated for eating disorders
*More likely to be obese
*Express less concern about eating, body shape, weight
*Report less distress over their body weight
What are the comorbid mental disorders from BED?
What is emotional eating?
Eating in response in one's negative affect/feelings
Characteristics of emotional eating
*Typically eating foods high in fat/sugar/calories (comfort foods
*Recent study: subjects induced into anger, anxiety, neutral mood states, subjects induced into anxiety showed significantly higher preferences for higher calorie foods
BMI Definitions of overweight
>40 morbid obesity
What is the irony of overweight vs ideal body size?
Body weight ideals have decreased over time, but actual body weights have increased
What are sociocultural factors in eating disorders?
*Social roles and cultural ideals - major discrepancies between ideal and actual
*Cited reasons for body image concerns and dieting in adolescent girls - mass media, peer influences, and criticism from family members
What are the biological causes of eating disorders?
*Genetics: tend to run in families and families with co-morbid disorders like OCD and anxiety
*Recent studies in genes show that mutations in ESRRA and HDAC4 increases likelihood of eating disorder
*Higher levels of perseverance and lower levels of persistence are correlated with disordered eating attitudes
What are psychological causes of eating disorders?
*Parenting received: emphasis on weight, appearance, over-involvement, lack of expression of negative affect