Chapter 11: Eating Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11: Eating Disorders Deck (30):
1

What is restrictive type anorexia?

Restricts eating and/or overexercises

2

What is binging/purging type anorexia?

Sounds like bulimia but isn't - person is still significantly underweight (

3

Characteristics of anorexics

*Need for control
*Perfectionism
*Depression
*Lower self esteem
*Obsessed with food
*Distorted body image

4

Background of anorexics

*Enmeshed families
*High expectations
*Middle/upper class

5

Peak ages of onset

*Bimodal distribution of 14 and 18 - high school and college start at these ages
*Range of 15-19 years

6

Treatments for anorexia

*Operant techniques
*Family therapy - Maudsley approach

7

What are some operant techniques for treating anorexia?

Positive and negative reinforcements to modify maladaptive behaviors such as disordered eating behaviors, using CBT treatment

8

What is the irony in anorexia treatment?

When some are recovering, it can increase health risks for some due to the weakening of the heart from anorexia that can lead to the heart being less able to support a heavier weight that results from recovery

9

What are comorbid characteristics of anorexia restricting type?

*Introversion
*Conformity
*Perfectionism
*Rigidity

10

What are comorbid characteristics of anorexia bingeing/purging type?

*Extroversion
*Histrionic personality
*Impulse control/disorder
*Substance abuse

11

What is the major distinction between anorexia and bulimia?

Weight - bulimics may be normal or overweight

12

What are compensatory behaviors?

Behavior that compensates for food intake

13

What is exercise bulimia?

Person's compensatory behavior is exercise rather than throwing up or laxatives. For hours a day person is compelled to go to the gym and compensate for eating

14

Diagnostic criteria for bulimia

*DSM-5: at least 1 episode a week for at least 3 months
*Evidence for impulse control problems - more evidence for problems with substance abuse, gambling, etc.

15

What are comorbid mental disorders with bulimia?

*Mood disorders
*GAD
*Panic disorder
*Social phobias
*Substance use disorders
*Borderline personality disorder

16

What is the central issue for all eating disorders?

CONTROL!
*Anorexia: being in control
*Bulimia: being out of control

17

What is Binge Eating Disorder (BED)?

Binges in eating without purging
*Key: no compensatory behaviors

18

What are the diagnostic criteria for BED?

*Eating more rapidly than normal
*Eating large amounts of food
*Secretive about eating
*May eat large amounts when not hungry
*Feelings of a lack of control over eating
*History of episodes at least 1 day per week for at least 3 months

19

Severity rating of BED

*Mild - 1-3 episodes per week
*Moderate - 4-7 episodes per week
*Severe - 8-13 episodes per week
*Extreme - 14 and above episodes per week

20

What is the prevalence rate of BED?

*Females 1.5 times more likely than males
*Clinical Samples: majority is white females
*Community Samples: black and white females show equal prevalence rate

21

What are cultural differences in BED?

African American women are:
*Less likely to be treated for eating disorders
*More likely to be obese
*Express less concern about eating, body shape, weight
*Report less distress over their body weight

22

What are the comorbid mental disorders from BED?

*Major depression
*OCD
*Avoidant PD

23

What is emotional eating?

Eating in response in one's negative affect/feelings

24

Characteristics of emotional eating

*Typically eating foods high in fat/sugar/calories (comfort foods
*Recent study: subjects induced into anger, anxiety, neutral mood states, subjects induced into anxiety showed significantly higher preferences for higher calorie foods

25

BMI Definitions of overweight

>25 overweight
>30 obesity
>40 morbid obesity

26

What is the irony of overweight vs ideal body size?

Body weight ideals have decreased over time, but actual body weights have increased

27

What are sociocultural factors in eating disorders?

*Social roles and cultural ideals - major discrepancies between ideal and actual
*Cited reasons for body image concerns and dieting in adolescent girls - mass media, peer influences, and criticism from family members

28

What are the biological causes of eating disorders?

*Genetics: tend to run in families and families with co-morbid disorders like OCD and anxiety
*Recent studies in genes show that mutations in ESRRA and HDAC4 increases likelihood of eating disorder
*Higher levels of perseverance and lower levels of persistence are correlated with disordered eating attitudes

29

What are psychological causes of eating disorders?

*Depression
*Impulse control
*Parenting received: emphasis on weight, appearance, over-involvement, lack of expression of negative affect
*Self-esteem issues

30

What are social causes of eating disorders?

*Peer and family influences
*Sociocultural values
*Media influences - media doesn't cause it though
(Remember the Anne Becker study)