Flashcards in Chapter 14: Life and Culture in Eighteenth-Century Europe Deck (16):
In the 18th century, peasants lived in village communities and cultivated the land in Western Europe. Using an open-field system, animals were allowed to freely graze, land was partitioned into narrow strips, and peasants took up a two-three field crop rotation system (which was supposed to let the land rest, in theory).
The Low Countries were very densely populated, and was experiencing a growing population due to growing urban population, so they took the lead in farming.
New Innovations in Low Countries
- Planting a variety of crops.
- Manure as fertilizer.
- Continuous crop rotation.
Charles "Turnip" Townshend
Turnip promoted the continuous crop rotation of turnips, wheat, barley, etc.
Invented the seed drill that allowed for sowing crops in a straight row.
Promoted the selective breeding of livestock.
Agricultural movement where farmers consolidated their previous scattered lands into condensed, compact fields.
Allowed farmers to very rapidly implement agricultural innovations. This also forced many poor rural people to move to the cities to work in factories.
Factors that Limited Population Growth
- Widespread famine.
- Diseases, like the plague.
- Frequent wars that destroyed crops and spread diseases.
Factors that Promoted Population Growth
1. Agricultural revolution created a more abundant food supply.
2. The adoption of the potato as a staple food.
3. Commercial capitalism increased wealth.
4. Powerful monarchs suppressed civil wars.
5. Wars were fought by professional armies with strategic objectives – less bloody and devastating.
6. Medical care was beginning to improve.
7. Advances in transportation.
Population increased all over Europe.
Marriage Life before the 1750s
- Families were small and nuclear.
- Marriages were delayed for economic reasons, usually
- Parents held tight control over their children.
Marriage Life After 1750s
- Women left the home to look for work.
- Better transportation led to increased mobility.
- Young people became more financially independent.
- Arranged marriages declined.
Child Rearing + Life Expectancy
Many people were reluctant to grow emotionally attached to their children due to the high mortality rates. However, Rousseau promoted providing a loving and nurturing environment for children, and upper-middle-classes began placing greater emphasis on this.
The life expectancy increased. The higher quality and more abundant food (potato), improved sanitation, and improvements in vaccination and medicine contributed greatly to this.
Witchcraft in the 16th-17th Centuries
At the time, many people stressed the great powers of the Devil. Women were believed to be weak (thus easy targets, especially elderly widows), and the confusion of the religious wars and economic uncertainty played a major role in the growth of witchcraft.
However, with the end of the religious wars, Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment, and Protestant belief in a "Supreme God," witchcraft began to decline in the 17th century.
Characterized by flamboyance and frivolous details. Depicted light hearted scenes of "nobles at play," and this art style gained prominence during Louis XV's reign.
Architecture included highly decorated ceilings and accents.
Watteau, Boucher, and Fragonard.
Replaced Rococo in the 18th century. Characterized by the appreciation of Greek ideas, classical virtues, and key figures as classical heroes.