Chapter 14 The Reproductive Systems Medical Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 The Reproductive Systems Medical Terms Deck (133):
1

the interruption or termination of pregnancy before the fetus is viable

abortion

2

a disorder in which the placenta separates from the uterine wall before the birth of the fetus

abruptio placentae (placental abruption)

3

the abnormal absence of menstrual periods for three months or more

amenorrhea

4

a surgical puncture to remove amniotic fluid to evaluate fetal health and to diagnose certain congenital disorders

amniocentesis

5

marked by the decrease of the male hormone testosterone, gradually beginning in the later 40s and progressing very gradually over several decades

andropause (ADAM (Androgen Decline in the Aging Male))

6

the absence of ovulation when it would normally be expected

anovulation

7

an evaluation of a newborn infant's physical status

Apgar score

8

a technique in which sperm from a woman's partner or donor are introduced into the vagina or uterus during the ovulatory phase of her menstrual cycle

artificial insemination (AI)

9

techniques used to aid an infertile couple in achieving a viable pregnancy

assisted reproductive technology

10

a condition in women in which there is an abnormal growth of certain bacteria in the vagina

bacterial vaginosis

11

inflammation of the glans penis

balanitis 

12

intermittent painless uterine contractions that are not true labor pains

Braxton Hick's contractions

13

mammoplasty performed to increase breast size

breast augmentation

14

a carcinoma that develops from the cells of the breast and can spread to adjacent lymph nodes and other body sites

breast cancer

15

mammoplasty performed to decrease and reshape excessively large, heavy breasts

breast reduction

16

a self-care procedure for the early detection of breast cancer

breast self-examination

17

a birth complication in which the buttocks of feet of the fetus are positioned to enter the birth canal instead of the head

breech presentation

18

surgical removal or destruction of both testicles

castration (bilateral orchidectomy)

19

cancer that develops in the cervix

cervical cancer

20

the presence of precancerous changes in the cells that make up the inner lining of the cervix

cervical dysplasia

21

inflammation of the cervix

cervicitis

22

the delivery of the child through an incision in the maternal abdominal and uterine walls

cesarean section (C-section)

23

a sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis

chlamydia

24

examination of cells retrieved from the chorionic villi between the 8th and 10th weeks of pregnancy

chorionic villus sampling

25

surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis

circumcision

26

surgical fixation of the vagina to a surrounding structure

colpopexy (vaginofixation)

27

surgical suturing of a tear in the vagina

colporrhaphy

28

tearing or laceration of the vaginal walls

colporrhexis

29

direct visual examination of the tissue of the cervix and vagina

colposcopy

30

surgical removal of a cone-shaped section of tissue from the cervix

conization (cone biopsy)

31

a measure taken or a device used to lessen the likelihood of pregnancy

contraceptive

32

a developmental defect in which one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum

cryptorchidism (undescended testicle)

33

a surgical procedure in which the cervix is dilated and the endometrium of the uterus is scraped away

dilation and curettage (D&C)

34

a condition characterized by abnormal bleeding in the uterus

dysfunctional uterine bleeding

35

pain caused by uterine cramps during a menstrual period

dysmenorrhea

36

pain during sexual intercourse

dyspareunia

37

during pregnancy, a more serious form of preeclampsia characterized by convuslions and sometimes coma

eclampsia

38

the condition in which a fertilized egg is implanted and begins to develop outside of the uterus

ectopic pregnancy (extrauterine pregnancy)

39

inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the cervix

endocervicitis

40

a diagnostic test in which a small amount of the tissue lining the uterus is removed for microscopic examination

endometrial biopsy

41

a cancerous growth that begins in the lining of the uterus

endometrial cancer

42

a condition in which patches of endometrial tissue escape the uterus and become attached to other structures in the pelvic cavity

endometriosis

43

a diagnostic test utilizing ultrasound to image the uterus and fallopian tubes to determine the cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding

endovaginal ultrasound

44

inflammation of the epididymis

epididymitis

45

surgical suturing to repair an episiotomy

episiorrhaphy

46

surgical incision made into the perineum to enlarge the vaginal orifice to prevent tearing of tissues as the infant moves out of the birth canal

episiotomy

47

the inability of the male to achieve or maintain a penile erection

erectile dysfunction (impotence)

48

the use of an electric device to record the fetal heart rate and maternal uterine contractions during labor

fetal monitoring

49

a noninvasive procedure used to image and evaluate fetal development during pregnancy

fetal ultrasound

50

round, rubbery, firm mass that arises from excess growth of glandular and connective tissue in the breast

fibroadenoma

51

the presence of single or multiple benign cysts in the breasts

fibrocystic breast disease

52

performed between 11 and 13 weeks of pregnancy and involves an ultrasound and a finger-stick blood test

first trimester screening (combined screening)

53

the production of breast milk in women who are not breast feeding

galactorrhea

54

a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1 or 2

genital herpes

55

a sexually transmitted disease caused by the human papillomavirus

genital warts

56

the form of diabetes that occurs during some pregnancies

gestational diabetes mellitus

57

a highly contagious sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae

gonorrhea

58

the presence of blood in the seminal fluid

hematospermia

59

the use of the female hormones estrogen and progestin to replace those the body no longer produces during and after perimenopause

hormone replacement therapy

60

a bloodborne pathogen that damages or kills the T cells of the immune system, causing it to progressively fail

human immunodeficiency virus

61

a virus that causes genital warts and cervical cancer

human papillomavirus

62

a fluid-filled sac in the scrotum along the spermatic cord leading from the testicles

hydrocele

63

an excessive amount of menstrual flow over a period of more than seven days

hypermenorrhea (menorrhagia)

64

an unusually small amount of menstrual flow during a shortened regular menstrual period

hypomenorrhea

65

the surgical removal of the uterus

hysterectomy

66

a radiographic examination of the uterus and the fallopian tubes

hysterosalpinography

67

the direct visual examination of the interior of the uterus and fallopian tubes

hysteroscopy

68

a procedure in which mature ova are removed from the mother to be fertilized

in vitro fertilization

69

an apparatus for maintaining a controlled environment for a premature or ill newborn

incubator

70

a molded plastic contraceptive inserted through the cervix into the uterus to prevent pregnancy

intrauterine device

71

a profuse whitish mucus discharge from the uterus and vagina

leukorrhea

72

a cosmetic operation on the breasts

mammoplasty (mammaplasty)

73

pain in the breast

mastalgia (mastodynia)

74

a breast infection that is caused by bacteria that enter the breast tissue, most frequently during breastfeeding

mastitis

75

surgery to affix sagging breasts in a more elevated position

mastopexy

76

excessive uterine bleeding occurring both during the menses and at other irregular intervals

menometrorrhagia (intermenstrual bleeding)

77

an abnormal discharge, such as mucus or pus, from the uterus

metrorrhea

78

the surgical removal of uterine fibroids

myomectomy

79

20 to 120 million or more sperm per ml of semen

normal sperm count

80

light or infrequent menstruation in woman with previously normal periods

oligomenorrhea

81

a sperm count of below 20million/mL

oligospermia (low sperm count)

82

the surgical removal of one or both ovaries

oophorectomy (ovariectomy)

83

inflammation of an ovary

oophoritis

84

the surgical removal of one or both testicles

orchidectomy (orchiectomy)

85

the repair of an undescended testicle

orchiopexy

86

cancer that begins within the cells of the ovaries

ovarian cancer

87

the rupture of an ovary

ovariorrhexis

88

an exfoliative biopsy of the cervix

Pap smear

89

any inflammatory inflammation of the female reproductive organs not associated with surgery or pregnancy

pelvic inflammatory disease

90

a radiographic study to measure the dimensions of the pelvis to determine its capacity to allow passage of the fetus through the birth canal

pelvimetry

91

a form of sexual dysfunction in which the penis is bent or curved during erection

Peyronie's disease (penile curvature)

92

narrowing of the opening of the foreskin so that it cannot be retracted to expose the glans penis

phimosis

93

abnormal implantation of the placenta in the lower portion of the uterus

placenta previa

94

condition caused by a hormonal imbalance in which the ovaries are enlarged by the presence of many cysts formed by incompletely developed follicles

polycystic ovarian syndrome

95

abnormally frequent menstruation

polymenorrhea

96

a complication of pregnancy characterized by hypertension, edema, and proteinuria

preeclampsia (pregnancy-induced hypertension or toxemia)

97

a diagnostic test to is determine if a woman is pregnant. detects an unusually high amount of the human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) hormone

pregnancy test

98

a condition in which the male reaches climax too soon, usually before or shortly after penetration

premature ejaculation

99

a neonate born before the 37th week of gestation

premature infant (preemie)

100

a condition in which the ovaries cease to function before age 40

premature menopause

101

a condition associated with severe emotional and physical problems linked to the menstrual cycle

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)

102

a condition associated with severe emotional and physical problems linked to the menstrual cycle

premenstrual syndrome

103

a painful erection that lasts four hours or more, but is not accompanied by sexual excitement

priapism

104

severe itching of the external female genitalia

pruritus vulvae

105

an accumulation of pus in the fallopian tubes

pyosalpinx

106

the surgical removal of the ovaries and Fallopian tubes, the uterus and cervix, plus nearby lymph nodes

radical hysterectomy (bilateral hysterosalpingo-oophorectomy)

107

surgical removal of one or both fallopian tubes

salpingectomy

108

inflammation of a fallopian tube

salpingitis

109

the surgical removal of a fallopian tube and ovary

salpingo-oophorectomy

110

infections caused by either a bacteria or a virus transmitted through sexual intercourse or other genital contact

sexual transmitted disease (venereal disease)

111

any procedure rendering an individual (male or female) incapable of reproducing

sterilization

112

a cyst that develops in the epididymis and is filled with a milky fluid containing sperm 

spermatocele 

113

is the testing of freshly ejaculated semen to determine the volume plus the number, shape, size, and motility of the sperm

sperm count (sperm analysis)

114

the birth of a fetus that died before or during delivery

stillbirth

115

a sexually transmitted disease that is caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum

syphilis

116

cancer that begins in the testicles

testicular cancer

117

a self-help step in early detect of testicular cancer by detecting lumps, swelling, or changes in the skin of the scrotum

testicular self-examination

118

a sharp pain in the scrotum caused by twisting of the vas deferens and blood vessels leading into the testicle

testicular torsion

119

inflammation of one or both testicles

testitis (orchitis)

120

the removal of the uterus and cervix, either through the vagina or laparoscopically through the abdomen

total hysterectomy (complete hysterectomy)

121

a sexually transmitted infection caused by the parasite trichomonas vaginalis

trichomoniasis (trich)

122

a surgical procedure performed for the purpose of female sterilization

tubal ligation

123

a benign tumor composed of muscle and fibrous tissue that occurs in the wall of the uterus

uterine fibroid (myoma)

124

the condition in which the uterus slides from its normal position in the pelvic cavity and sags into the vagina

uterine prolapse (pelvic floor hernia)

125

a vaginal infection caused by candida albicans

vaginal candidiasis (yeast infection)

126

inflammation of the lining of the vagina

vaginitis (colpitis)

127

a knot of varicose veins in one side of the scrotum

varicocele

128

the removal of a portion of an enlarged vein to relieve a varicocele

varicocelectomy

129

the male sterilization procedure in which a small portion of the vas deferens is surgically removed

vasectomy

130

a procedure performed as an attempt to restore fertility to a vasectomized male

vasovasostomy (vasectomy reversal)

131

an abnormal opening between the bladder and vagina

vesicovaginal fistula

132

inflammation of the vulva

vulvitis

133

a painful syndrome of unknown cause characterized by chronic burning, pain during sexual intercourse, itching, or stinging irritation of the vulva

vulvodynia

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