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Flashcards in Chapter 14 vocabulary Deck (45)

The treatment of emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal problems through the use of psychological techniques designed to encourage understanding of problems and modify troubling feelings, behaviors, or relationships.



The use of medications, electroconvulsive therapy, or other medical treatments to treat the symptoms associated with psychological disorders.

Biomedical therapies


Holds an academic doctorate (Ph.D, Psy.D, or Ed.D) and is required to be licensed to practice. Assesses and treats mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. His expertise in psychological testing and evaluation, diagnosis, psychotherapy, research, and prevention of mental and emotional disorders. May work in a private practice, hospitals, or community mental health centers.

Clinical psychologist


Holds an academic doctorate and must be licensed to practice. Assesses and treats mental, emotional, and behavioral problems and disorders, but usually disorders that are of lesser severity. The distinction between clinical psychologists and clinical psychologists and counseling psychologists however, has decreased over the years.

Counseling psychologist


Holds a medical degree (M.D or D.O.) and is required to be licensed to practice. Has expertise in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental and emotional disorders. Often has training in psychotherapy. May prescribe medications, electroconvulsive therapy, or other medical procedures.



Usually a psychiatrist or clinical psychologist who has received additional training in the specific techniques of psychoanalysis, the form of psychotherapy originated by Sigmund Freud.



Holds a master's degree in counseling, with extensive supervised training in assessment, counseling, and therapy techniques. May be certified in specialty areas. Most states require licensure or certification.

Licensed professional counselor


Usually holds a master's degree in social work (M.S.W.). Training includes an internship in a social service agency or mental health center. Most states require certification or licensing. May or may not have training in psychotherapy.

Psychiatric social worker


Usually holds a master's degree, with extensive supervised experience in couple or family therapy. May also have training in individual therapy. Many states require licensing.

Marriage and family therapist


Holds an R.N. degree and has selected psychiatry or mental health nursing as a specialty area. Typically works in a hospital psychiatry unit or in a community mental health center. May or may not have training in psychotherapy.

Psychiatric nurse


A type of psychotherapy originated by Sigmund Freud in which free association, dream interpretation, and analysis of resistance and transference are used to explore repressed or unconscious impulses, anxieties, or internal conflicts.

Psychoanalysis (in psychotherapy)


A psychoanalytic technique in which the patient spontaneously reports all thoughts, feelings, and mental images that arise, revealing unconscious thoughts and emotions.

Free Association


In psychoanalysis, the patient's unconscious attempts to block the revelation of repressed memories and conflicts.



A technique used in psychoanalysis in which the content of dreams is analyzed for disguised or symbolic wishes, meanings, and motivations.

Dream interpretation


A technique used in psychoanalysis in which the psychoanalyst offers a carefully timed explanation of the patient's dreams, free associations, or behaviors to facilitate the recognition of unconscious conflicts or motivations.



In psychoanalysis, the process by which emotions and desires originally associated with a significant person in the patient's life, such as a parent, are unconsciously transferred onto the psychoanalyst.



Type of psychotherapy that is based on psychoanalytic theory but differs in that it is typically time-limited, has specific goals, and involves an active, rather than neutral, role for the therapist.

Short-term dynamic therapies


A brief psychodynamic psychotherapy that focuses on current relationships and is based on the assumption that symptoms are caused and maintained by interpersonal problems.

Interpersonal therapy (IPT)


A type of psychotherapy developed by humanistic psychologist Carl Rogers in which the therapist is non directive and reflective, and the client directs the focus of each therapy session.

Client-centered therapy (Person-centered therapy)


A type of psychotherapy that focuses on directly changing maladaptive behavior patterns by using basic learning principals and techniques.

Behavior therapy (behavior modification)


A behavior therapy technique based on classical conditioning that involves modifying behavior by conditioning a new response that is incompatible with a previously learned response.



Behavioral therapy for phobias, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, or related anxiety disorders in which the person is repeatedly exposed to the disturbing object or situation under controlled conditions.

Exposure therapy


A type of behavior therapy in which phobic responses are reduced by pairing relaxation with a series of mental images or real-life situations that the person finds progressively more fear-provoking; based on the principal of counterconditioning.

Systematic desensitization


A relatively ineffective type of behavior therapy that involves repeatedly pairing an aversive stimulus with the occurrence of undesirable behaviors or thoughts.

Aversive conditioning


A form of behavior therapy in which the therapeutic environment is structured to reward desired behaviors with tokens or points that may eventually be exchanged for tangible rewards.

Token economy


A group of psychotherapies based on the assumption that psychological problems are due to illogical patterns of thinking; treatment techniques focus on recognizing and altering these unhealthy thinking patterns.

Cognitive therapies


A type of cognitive therapy, developed by psychologist Albert Ellis, that focuses on changing the client's irrational beliefs.

Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT)


Therapy developed by Aron T. Beck that focuses on changing the client's unrealistic and maladaptive beliefs.

Cognitive therapy (CT)


Drawing a negative conclusion when there is little or no evidence to support it.

Arbitrary inference


Focusing on a single negative detail taken out of context and ignoring the more important aspects of the situation.

Selective abstraction


Drawing a sweeping, global conclusion based on an isolated incident and applying that conclusion to other unrelated areas of life.



Grossly overestimating the impact of negative events and grossly underestimating the impact of positive events so that small, bad events are magnified, but good, large events are minimized.

Magnification and minimization


Taking responsibility, blaming oneself, or applying external events to oneself when there is no basis or evidence for making the connection.



Therapy that integrates cognitive and behavioral techniques and that is based on the assumption that thoughts, moods, and behaviors are interrelated.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)


A form of psychotherapy that involves one or more therapists working simultaneously with a small group of clients.

Group therapy


A form of psychotherapy that is based on the assumption that the family is a system and that treats the family as a unit.

Family therapy


The pragmatic and integrated used of techniques from different psychotherapies.



Drugs that alter mental functions, alleviate psychological symptoms, and are used to treat psychological or mental disorders.

Psychotropic medications


Prescription drugs that are used to reduce psychotic symptoms; frequently used in the treatment of schizophrenia.

Antipsychotic medications (neuroleptics)


Newer antipsychotic medications that, in contrast with the early antipsychotic drugs, block dopamine receptors in brain regions associated with psychotic symptoms rather than more globally throughout the brain, resulting in fewer side effects.

Atypical antipsychotic medications


Prescription drugs that are used to alleviate the symptoms of anxiety.

Antianxiety medications


A naturally occurring substance that is used in the treatment of bipolar disorder.



Prescription drugs that are used to reduce the symptoms associated with major depressive disorder.

Antidepressant medications


Class of antidepressant medications that increase the availability of serotonin in the brain and cause fewer side effects than earlier antidepressants; they include prozac, paxil, and zoloft.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)


A biomedical therapy used primarily in the treatment of major depressive disorder that involves electronically inducing a brief brain seizure.

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) (Electroshock therapy)