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1

A negative emotional state occurring in response to events that are perceived as taxing or exceeding a person's resources or ability to cope.

Stress

2

Developed by Richard Lazarus, a model of stress that emphasizes the role of an individual's evaluation (appraisal) of events and situations and of the resources that h or she has available to deal with the event or situation.

Cognitive appraisal model of stress

3

If we perceive our resources as adequate to deal with a situation, we will experience:

little or no stress

4

If we perceive our resources as being inadequate to deal with a situation we see as threatening, challenging, or even harmful, we will experience:

The effects of stress

5

Whether we experience stress depends largely on: (2)

1. Cognitive appraisal (evaluation) of an event
2. The resources we have to deal with the event.

6

Many people begin to experience feelings or relaxation and calmness when they focus their attention on the things in their life for which they are thankful.
- Make a list of of people, circumstances, or items for which you are thankful

Gratitude list

7

Actively expressing this is linked to better physical health, better relationships, and lower levels of stress and depression.

Gratitude

8

The branch of psychology that studies how biological, behavioral, and social factors influence health, illness, medical treatment, and health-related behaviors.

Health psychology

9

The belief that physical health and illness are determined by the complex interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors.

Biophychosocial model

10

Events or situations that are perceived as harmful, threatening, or challenging.

Stressors

11

Everyday minor events that annoy and upset people.

Daily hassles

12

An unhealthy condition caused by chronic, prolonged work stress that is characterized by exhaustion, cynicism, ad a sense of failure or inadequacy.

Burnout

13

The stress that results from the pressure of adapting to a new culture.

Acculturative stress

14

A rapidly occurring chain of internal physical reactions that prepare people to either fight or take flight from an immediate threat.

Fight-or-flight response

15

Hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla that cause rapid physiological arousal, including adrenaline and noradrenaline.

Catecholamines

16

Hormones released by the adrenal cortex that play a key role in the body's response to long-term stressors.

Corticosteroids

17

Hans Selye's term for the three-stage progression of physical changes that occur when an organism is exposed to intense and prolonged stress. The three stages are alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.

General adaptation syndrome

18

Repeated, duplicate DNA sequences that are found at the very tips of chromosomes' genetic data during cell division.

Telomeres

19

Body system that produces specialized white blood cells that protect the body from viruses, bacteria and tumor cells.

Immune system

20

Specialized white blood cells that are responsible for immune defenses.

Lymphocytes

21

An interdisciplinary field that studies the interconnections among psychological processes, nervous and endocrine system functions, and the immune system.

Psychoneuroimmunology

22

Accounting for negative events or situations with external, unstable, and specific explanations.

Optimistic explanatory style

23

Accounting for negative events or situations with internal, stable, and global explanations.

Pessimistic explanatory style

24

A behavioral and emotional style characterized by a sense of time urgency, hostility, and competitiveness.

Type A behavior pattern

25

The resources provided by other people in times of need.

Social support

26

Behavioral and cognitive responses used to deal with stressors, involves our efforts to change circumstances, or our interpretation of circumstances, to make them more favorable and less threatening.

Coping

27

Coping efforts primarily aimed at directly changing or managing a threatening or harmful stressor.

Problem-focused coping

28

Coping efforts primarily aimed at relieving or regulating the emotional impact of a stressful situation.

Emotion-focused coping

29

A technique in which practitioners focus awareness on present experience with acceptance.

Mindfulness meditation

30

Branch of psychology that studies how a person's thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the presence of other people and by the social and physical environment.

Social psychology

31

An individual's unique sense of identity that has been influenced by social, cultural, and psychological experiences; your sense of who you are in relation to other people.

Sense of Self

32

The mental process people use to make sense of their social environments.

Social cognition

33

The effect of situational factors and other people on an individual's behavior.

Social influence

34

The mental processes we use to form judgements and draw conclusions about the characteristics and motives of other people.

Person perception

35

The "rules" or expectations, for appropriate behavior in a particular social situation.

Social norms

36

The mental process of categorizing people into groups (or social categories) on the basis of their shared characteristics.

Social categorization

37

Deliberate, conscious mental processes involved in perceptions, judgements, decisions, and reasoning.

Explicit cognition

38

Automatic, nonconscious mental processes that influence perceptions, judgements, decisions, and reasoning.

Implicit cognition

39

A network of assumptions or beliefs about the relationships among various types of people, traits, and behaviors.

Implicit personality theory

40

The mental process of inferring the causes of people's behavior, including one's own. Also refers to the explanation made for a particular behavior.

Attribution

41

The tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal, personal characteristics, while ignoring or underestimating the effects of external, situational factors; an attributional bias that is common in individualistic cultures.

Fundamental attribution error

42

The tendency to attribute our own behavior to external, situational characteristics, while ignoring or underestimating the effects of internal, personal factors.

Actor-observer bias

43

The tendency to blame an innocent victim of misfortune for having somehow caused the problem or for not having taken steps to avoid or prevent it.

Blaming the victim

44

The tendency to overestimate one's ability to have foreseen or predicted the outcome of an event.

Hindsight bias

45

The assumption that the world is fair and that therefore people get what they deserve and deserve what they get.

Just-world hypothesis

46

The tendency to attribute successful outcomes of one's own behavior to internal causes and unsuccessful outcomes to external, situational causes.

Self-serving bias

47

A learned tendency to evaluate some object, person, or issue in a particular way; such evaluations may be positive, negative, or ambivalent.

Attitude

48

An unpleasant state of psychological tension or arousal (dissonance) that occurs when two thoughts or perceptions (cognitions) are inconsistent; typically results from the awareness that attitudes and behavior are in conflict.

Cognitive dissonance

49

A negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific social group.

Prejudice

50

A cluster of characteristics that are associated with all members of a specific social group, often including qualities that are unrelated to the objective criteria that define the group.

Stereotype

51

A social group to which one belongs.

In-group

52

A social group to which one does not belong.

Out-group

53

The tendency to see members of out-groups as very similar to one another.

Out-group homogeneity effect

54

The tendency to judge the behavior of in-group members favorably and out-group members unfavorably.

In-group bias

55

Preferences and biases toward particular groups that are automatic, spontaneous, unintentional, and often unconscious; measured with the implicit associations test.

Implicit attitudes

56

Adjusting your opinions, judgements, or behaviors so that they match the opinions, judgements, or behaviors of other people, or the norms of a social group or situation.

Conformity

57

Behavior that is motivated by the desire to gain social acceptance and approval.

Normative social influence

58

The performance of a behavior in response to a direct command.

Obedience

59

Helping another person with no expectation of personal reward or benefit.

Altruism

60

Any behavior that helps another, whether the underlying motive is self-serving or selfless.

Prosocial behavior

61

A phenomenon in which the greater the number of people present, the less likely each individual is to help someone in distress.

Bystander effect

62

A phenomenon in which the presence of other people makes it less likely that any individual will help someone in distress because the obligation to intervene is shared among all the onlookers.

Diffusion of responsibility

63

Verbal or physical behavior intended to cause harm to other people.

Aggression

64

The deliberate attempt to influence the attitudes or behavior of another person in a situation in which that person has some freedom of choice.

Persuasion

65

The reactions of the body to an event often experienced emotionally as a sudden, violent and upsetting disturbance.

Feelings

66

Blame directed at oneself, may be based on real or unreal conditions.

Guilt

67

A state of tension typically characterized by rapid heartbeat and shortness of breath. An emotion characterized by a vague fear or premonition that something undesirable is going to happen.

Anxiety

68

The killing of one human being by another.

Homicide

69

The deliberate act of killing oneself.

Suicide

70

The assumption of blame directed at oneself by others.

Shame

71

Strong emotion marked by such reactions as alarm, dread, and disquiet.

Fear

72

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (crib death).
The sudden unexpected death of a seemingly healthy infant between four months and one year of age for which no other cause of death has been found after thorough examination of the death scene, review of medical history, and a complete autopsy. Suffocation, disease, neglect, or abuse does not cause this.

SIDS

73

An occurrence of a severity and magnitude that normally results in death, injuries, property damage, and cannot be managed though the routine procedures and resources of the government.

Disasters

74

When the condition of the bodies reflects the violence of the disaster.

Horror factor

75

Exposure of victims to life-threatening situations. Directly witness or directly experience life-threatening situations.

Terror

76

An act or practice of allowing the death of a person suffering from a life-limiting condition.

Euthanasia

77

Involves a competent, terminally ill person who makes a fully voluntary and persistent request for aid in dying.
- emphasize that such an act is one of kindness.

Voluntary active euthanasia

78

An intervention intended to kill a person who is incapable of making a request to die: an infant or a young child, a mentally incompetent patient or someone, who because of impaired consciousness, is unable to give voice to their opinion.

Involuntary active euthanasia

79

The forgoing or withdraw of medical treatment that offers no hope or benefit to the total well-being of the patient with the intent of causing death.

Passive euthanasia

80

When a physician provides medications or other means for a patient to use on himself or end life. The physician does not control the act, the patient does.

Physician-assisted suicide

81

An abnormal grief response that is more intense than normal grief, yet different than clinical depression.

Complicated grief

82

The scientific study of the origins, symptoms, and development of psychological disorders.

Psychopathology

83

A pattern of behavioral and psychological symptoms that causes significant personal distress, impairs the ability to function in one or more important areas of life, or both.

Psychological disorder or mental disorder

84

Abbreviation for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
- The book published by the American Psychiatric Association that describes the specific symptoms and diagnostic guidelines for different psychological disorders.

DSM-5

85

An unpleasant emotional state characterized by physical arousal and feelings of tension, apprehension, and worry.

Anxiety

86

A category of psychological disorders in which extreme anxiety is the main diagnostic feature and causes significant disruptions in the person's cognitive, behavioral, or interpersonal functioning.

Anxiety disorders

87

An anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, global, and persistent symptoms of anxiety; also called free-floating anxiety.

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)

88

A sudden episode of extreme anxiety that rapidly escalates in intensity.

Panic attack

89

An anxiety disorder in which the person experiences frequent and unexpected panic attacks.

Panic disorder

90

An anxiety disorder involving extreme fear of experiencing a panic attack or other embarrassing or incapacitating symptoms in a public situation where escape is impossible and help is unavailable.

Agoraphobia

91

A persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, situation, or activity.

Phobia

92

An excessive, intense, and irrational fear of a specific object, situation, or activity that is actively avoided or endured with marked anxiety.

Specific phobia

93

An anxiety disorder involving the extreme and irrational fear of being embarrassed, judged, or scrutinized by others in social situations.

Social anxiety disorder

94

A disorder triggered by exposure to a highly traumatic event that results in recurrent, involuntary, and intrusive memories of the event; avoidance of stimuli and situations associated with the event; negative changes in thoughts, moods, and emotions; and a persistent state of heightened physical arousal.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

95

Disorder characterized by the presence of intrusive, repetitive, and unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels driven to perform (compulsions).

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

96

Repeated, intrusive, and uncontrollable irrational thoughts or mental images that cause extreme anxiety and distress.

Obsessions

97

Repetitive behaviors or mental acts that a person feels driven to perform in order to prevent or reduce anxiety and distress, or to prevent a dreaded event or situation.

Compulsions

98

A mood disorder characterized by extreme and persistent feelings of despondency, worthlessness, and hopelessness, causing impaired emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning.

Major depressive disorder

99

A mood disorder in which episodes of depression typically occur during the fall and winter and subside during the spring and summer.

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)

100

A disorder involving chronic feelings of depression that is often less severe than major depressive disorder.

Persistent depressive disorder

101

A mood disorder involving periods of incapacitating depression alternating with periods of extreme euphoria and excitement; formerly called manic depression.

Bipolar disorder

102

A sudden, rapidly escalating emotional state characterized by extreme euphoria, excitement, physical energy, and rapid thoughts and speech.

Manic episode

103

A mood disorder characterized by moderate but frequent mood swings that are not severe enough to qualify for bipolar disorder.

Cyclothymic disorder

104

A category of mental disorders characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior.

Eating disorder

105

An eating disorder characterized by excessive weight loss, an irrational fear of gaining weight, and distorted body self-perception.

Anorexia nervosa

106

An eating disorder characterized by binges of extreme overeating followed by self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, or other inappropriate methods to purge the excess food and prevent weight gain.

Bulimia nervosa

107

An eating disorder characterized by binges of extreme overeating without use of self-induced vomiting or other inappropriate measures to purge the excess food.

Binge-eating disorder

108

Inflexible, maladaptive patterns of thoughts, emotions, behavior, and interpersonal functioning that are stable over time and across situations and that deviate from the expectations of the individual's culture.

Personality disorder

109

A personality disorder characterized by a perversive pattern of disregarding and violating the rights of others; such individuals are also often referred to as psychopaths or sociopaths.

Antisocial personality disorder

110

A personality disorder characterized by instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotions, and marked impulsively.

Borderline personality disorder (BPD)

111

A break or disruption in consciousness during which awareness, memory, and personal identity become separate or divided.

Dissociative experience

112

A category of psychological disorders in which extreme and frequent disruptions of awareness, memory, and personal identity impair the ability to function.

Dissociative disorders

113

A dissociative disorder involving the partial or total inability to recall important personal information.

Dissociative amnesia

114

A type of dissociative amnesia involving sudden and unexpected travel away from home, extensive amnesia, and identity confusion.

Dissociative fugue

115

A dissociative disorder involving extensive memory disruptions along with the presence of two or more distinct identities, or personalities; formally called multiple personality disorder.

Dissociative identity disorder (DID)

116

A psychological disorder in which the ability to function is impaired by severely distorted beliefs, perceptions, and thought processes.

Schizophrenia

117

In schizophrenia, symptoms that reflect excesses or distortions of normal functioning, including delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thoughts and behavior.

Positive symptoms

118

In schizophrenia, symptoms that reflect defects or deficits in normal functioning, including flat affect, alogia, and avolition.

Negative symptoms

119

A falsely held belief that persists despite compelling contradictory evidence.

Delusion

120

A false or distorted perception that seems vividly real to the person experiencing it.

Hallucination