Flashcards in Vocab for exam 4 Deck (120)
A negative emotional state occurring in response to events that are perceived as taxing or exceeding a person's resources or ability to cope.
Developed by Richard Lazarus, a model of stress that emphasizes the role of an individual's evaluation (appraisal) of events and situations and of the resources that h or she has available to deal with the event or situation.
Cognitive appraisal model of stress
If we perceive our resources as adequate to deal with a situation, we will experience:
little or no stress
If we perceive our resources as being inadequate to deal with a situation we see as threatening, challenging, or even harmful, we will experience:
The effects of stress
Whether we experience stress depends largely on: (2)
1. Cognitive appraisal (evaluation) of an event
2. The resources we have to deal with the event.
Many people begin to experience feelings or relaxation and calmness when they focus their attention on the things in their life for which they are thankful.
- Make a list of of people, circumstances, or items for which you are thankful
Actively expressing this is linked to better physical health, better relationships, and lower levels of stress and depression.
The branch of psychology that studies how biological, behavioral, and social factors influence health, illness, medical treatment, and health-related behaviors.
The belief that physical health and illness are determined by the complex interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors.
Events or situations that are perceived as harmful, threatening, or challenging.
Everyday minor events that annoy and upset people.
An unhealthy condition caused by chronic, prolonged work stress that is characterized by exhaustion, cynicism, ad a sense of failure or inadequacy.
The stress that results from the pressure of adapting to a new culture.
A rapidly occurring chain of internal physical reactions that prepare people to either fight or take flight from an immediate threat.
Hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla that cause rapid physiological arousal, including adrenaline and noradrenaline.
Hormones released by the adrenal cortex that play a key role in the body's response to long-term stressors.
Hans Selye's term for the three-stage progression of physical changes that occur when an organism is exposed to intense and prolonged stress. The three stages are alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.
General adaptation syndrome
Repeated, duplicate DNA sequences that are found at the very tips of chromosomes' genetic data during cell division.
Body system that produces specialized white blood cells that protect the body from viruses, bacteria and tumor cells.
Specialized white blood cells that are responsible for immune defenses.
An interdisciplinary field that studies the interconnections among psychological processes, nervous and endocrine system functions, and the immune system.
Accounting for negative events or situations with external, unstable, and specific explanations.
Optimistic explanatory style
Accounting for negative events or situations with internal, stable, and global explanations.
Pessimistic explanatory style
A behavioral and emotional style characterized by a sense of time urgency, hostility, and competitiveness.
Type A behavior pattern
The resources provided by other people in times of need.
Behavioral and cognitive responses used to deal with stressors, involves our efforts to change circumstances, or our interpretation of circumstances, to make them more favorable and less threatening.
Coping efforts primarily aimed at directly changing or managing a threatening or harmful stressor.
Coping efforts primarily aimed at relieving or regulating the emotional impact of a stressful situation.
A technique in which practitioners focus awareness on present experience with acceptance.
Branch of psychology that studies how a person's thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the presence of other people and by the social and physical environment.
An individual's unique sense of identity that has been influenced by social, cultural, and psychological experiences; your sense of who you are in relation to other people.
Sense of Self
The mental process people use to make sense of their social environments.
The effect of situational factors and other people on an individual's behavior.
The mental processes we use to form judgements and draw conclusions about the characteristics and motives of other people.
The "rules" or expectations, for appropriate behavior in a particular social situation.
The mental process of categorizing people into groups (or social categories) on the basis of their shared characteristics.
Deliberate, conscious mental processes involved in perceptions, judgements, decisions, and reasoning.
Automatic, nonconscious mental processes that influence perceptions, judgements, decisions, and reasoning.
A network of assumptions or beliefs about the relationships among various types of people, traits, and behaviors.
Implicit personality theory
The mental process of inferring the causes of people's behavior, including one's own. Also refers to the explanation made for a particular behavior.
The tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal, personal characteristics, while ignoring or underestimating the effects of external, situational factors; an attributional bias that is common in individualistic cultures.
Fundamental attribution error
The tendency to attribute our own behavior to external, situational characteristics, while ignoring or underestimating the effects of internal, personal factors.
The tendency to blame an innocent victim of misfortune for having somehow caused the problem or for not having taken steps to avoid or prevent it.
Blaming the victim
The tendency to overestimate one's ability to have foreseen or predicted the outcome of an event.
The assumption that the world is fair and that therefore people get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
The tendency to attribute successful outcomes of one's own behavior to internal causes and unsuccessful outcomes to external, situational causes.
A learned tendency to evaluate some object, person, or issue in a particular way; such evaluations may be positive, negative, or ambivalent.
An unpleasant state of psychological tension or arousal (dissonance) that occurs when two thoughts or perceptions (cognitions) are inconsistent; typically results from the awareness that attitudes and behavior are in conflict.
A negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific social group.
A cluster of characteristics that are associated with all members of a specific social group, often including qualities that are unrelated to the objective criteria that define the group.
A social group to which one belongs.
A social group to which one does not belong.
The tendency to see members of out-groups as very similar to one another.
Out-group homogeneity effect
The tendency to judge the behavior of in-group members favorably and out-group members unfavorably.
Preferences and biases toward particular groups that are automatic, spontaneous, unintentional, and often unconscious; measured with the implicit associations test.
Adjusting your opinions, judgements, or behaviors so that they match the opinions, judgements, or behaviors of other people, or the norms of a social group or situation.
Behavior that is motivated by the desire to gain social acceptance and approval.
Normative social influence
The performance of a behavior in response to a direct command.
Helping another person with no expectation of personal reward or benefit.
Any behavior that helps another, whether the underlying motive is self-serving or selfless.
A phenomenon in which the greater the number of people present, the less likely each individual is to help someone in distress.
A phenomenon in which the presence of other people makes it less likely that any individual will help someone in distress because the obligation to intervene is shared among all the onlookers.
Diffusion of responsibility
Verbal or physical behavior intended to cause harm to other people.
The deliberate attempt to influence the attitudes or behavior of another person in a situation in which that person has some freedom of choice.
The reactions of the body to an event often experienced emotionally as a sudden, violent and upsetting disturbance.
Blame directed at oneself, may be based on real or unreal conditions.
A state of tension typically characterized by rapid heartbeat and shortness of breath. An emotion characterized by a vague fear or premonition that something undesirable is going to happen.
The killing of one human being by another.
The deliberate act of killing oneself.
The assumption of blame directed at oneself by others.
Strong emotion marked by such reactions as alarm, dread, and disquiet.
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (crib death).
The sudden unexpected death of a seemingly healthy infant between four months and one year of age for which no other cause of death has been found after thorough examination of the death scene, review of medical history, and a complete autopsy. Suffocation, disease, neglect, or abuse does not cause this.
An occurrence of a severity and magnitude that normally results in death, injuries, property damage, and cannot be managed though the routine procedures and resources of the government.
When the condition of the bodies reflects the violence of the disaster.
Exposure of victims to life-threatening situations. Directly witness or directly experience life-threatening situations.
An act or practice of allowing the death of a person suffering from a life-limiting condition.
Involves a competent, terminally ill person who makes a fully voluntary and persistent request for aid in dying.
- emphasize that such an act is one of kindness.
Voluntary active euthanasia
An intervention intended to kill a person who is incapable of making a request to die: an infant or a young child, a mentally incompetent patient or someone, who because of impaired consciousness, is unable to give voice to their opinion.
Involuntary active euthanasia
The forgoing or withdraw of medical treatment that offers no hope or benefit to the total well-being of the patient with the intent of causing death.
When a physician provides medications or other means for a patient to use on himself or end life. The physician does not control the act, the patient does.
An abnormal grief response that is more intense than normal grief, yet different than clinical depression.
The scientific study of the origins, symptoms, and development of psychological disorders.
A pattern of behavioral and psychological symptoms that causes significant personal distress, impairs the ability to function in one or more important areas of life, or both.
Psychological disorder or mental disorder
Abbreviation for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
- The book published by the American Psychiatric Association that describes the specific symptoms and diagnostic guidelines for different psychological disorders.
An unpleasant emotional state characterized by physical arousal and feelings of tension, apprehension, and worry.
A category of psychological disorders in which extreme anxiety is the main diagnostic feature and causes significant disruptions in the person's cognitive, behavioral, or interpersonal functioning.
An anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, global, and persistent symptoms of anxiety; also called free-floating anxiety.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
A sudden episode of extreme anxiety that rapidly escalates in intensity.
An anxiety disorder in which the person experiences frequent and unexpected panic attacks.
An anxiety disorder involving extreme fear of experiencing a panic attack or other embarrassing or incapacitating symptoms in a public situation where escape is impossible and help is unavailable.
A persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, situation, or activity.
An excessive, intense, and irrational fear of a specific object, situation, or activity that is actively avoided or endured with marked anxiety.
An anxiety disorder involving the extreme and irrational fear of being embarrassed, judged, or scrutinized by others in social situations.
Social anxiety disorder
A disorder triggered by exposure to a highly traumatic event that results in recurrent, involuntary, and intrusive memories of the event; avoidance of stimuli and situations associated with the event; negative changes in thoughts, moods, and emotions; and a persistent state of heightened physical arousal.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Disorder characterized by the presence of intrusive, repetitive, and unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels driven to perform (compulsions).
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Repeated, intrusive, and uncontrollable irrational thoughts or mental images that cause extreme anxiety and distress.
Repetitive behaviors or mental acts that a person feels driven to perform in order to prevent or reduce anxiety and distress, or to prevent a dreaded event or situation.
A mood disorder characterized by extreme and persistent feelings of despondency, worthlessness, and hopelessness, causing impaired emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning.
Major depressive disorder
A mood disorder in which episodes of depression typically occur during the fall and winter and subside during the spring and summer.
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
A disorder involving chronic feelings of depression that is often less severe than major depressive disorder.
Persistent depressive disorder
A mood disorder involving periods of incapacitating depression alternating with periods of extreme euphoria and excitement; formerly called manic depression.
A sudden, rapidly escalating emotional state characterized by extreme euphoria, excitement, physical energy, and rapid thoughts and speech.
A mood disorder characterized by moderate but frequent mood swings that are not severe enough to qualify for bipolar disorder.
A category of mental disorders characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior.
An eating disorder characterized by excessive weight loss, an irrational fear of gaining weight, and distorted body self-perception.
An eating disorder characterized by binges of extreme overeating followed by self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, or other inappropriate methods to purge the excess food and prevent weight gain.
An eating disorder characterized by binges of extreme overeating without use of self-induced vomiting or other inappropriate measures to purge the excess food.
Inflexible, maladaptive patterns of thoughts, emotions, behavior, and interpersonal functioning that are stable over time and across situations and that deviate from the expectations of the individual's culture.
A personality disorder characterized by a perversive pattern of disregarding and violating the rights of others; such individuals are also often referred to as psychopaths or sociopaths.
Antisocial personality disorder
A personality disorder characterized by instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotions, and marked impulsively.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD)
A break or disruption in consciousness during which awareness, memory, and personal identity become separate or divided.
A category of psychological disorders in which extreme and frequent disruptions of awareness, memory, and personal identity impair the ability to function.
A dissociative disorder involving the partial or total inability to recall important personal information.
A type of dissociative amnesia involving sudden and unexpected travel away from home, extensive amnesia, and identity confusion.
A dissociative disorder involving extensive memory disruptions along with the presence of two or more distinct identities, or personalities; formally called multiple personality disorder.
Dissociative identity disorder (DID)
A psychological disorder in which the ability to function is impaired by severely distorted beliefs, perceptions, and thought processes.
In schizophrenia, symptoms that reflect excesses or distortions of normal functioning, including delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thoughts and behavior.
In schizophrenia, symptoms that reflect defects or deficits in normal functioning, including flat affect, alogia, and avolition.
A falsely held belief that persists despite compelling contradictory evidence.