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Flashcards in Chapter 14- discovering psychology Deck (45)

Troubling thoughts, feelings, or behaviors that cause psychological discomfort or interfere with a person's ability to function.

Psychological disorder


Drugs that are used to treat psychological or mental disorders.

Psychotropic medications


Developed psychoanalysis in the early 1900s.
- Early childhood experiences provided the foundation for later personality development. (become repressed)
- Long-standing psychological conflicts are recognized and re-experienced.
- Free association
- Resistance
- Dream interpretation
- Interpretation
- Transference

Sigmund Freud


Pushed out of conscious awareness.



- Therapeutic contact lasts for no more than a few months
- The patient's problems are quickly assessed at the beginning of therapy
- The therapist and patient agree on specific, concrete, and attainable goals.
- Therapists are more direct than psychoanalysts.
- Engage the patient in an active dialogue.

Short-term dynamic therapies


Focuses on current relationships and social interactions.
First phase: The therapist identifies the interpersonal problem that is causing difficulties.
- unresolved grief
- Role disputes
- Role transitions
- Interpersonal deficits

Used to treat eating disorders and substance use disorders as well as major depressive disorder.

Interpersonal therapy (IPT)


Problems dealing with the death of significant others.

Unresolved grief


Repetitive conflicts with significant others, such as the person's partner, family members, friends, or co-workers.

Role disputes


Problems involving major life changes, such as going away to college, becoming a parent, getting married or divorced, or retiring.

Role transitions


Absent or faulty social skills that limit the ability to start or maintain healthy relationships with others.

Interpersonal deficits


Emphasizes human potential, self-awareness, and freedom of choice.

Humanistic perspective in psychology


Contend that the most important factor in personality is the individual's conscious, subjective perception of his or her self.
- People are innately good and motivated by the need to grow psychologically.

Humanistic psychologists


- Deliberately used the word client rather than patient.
- Patient implied that people are sick and were seeking treatment from an all-knowing authority figure who could heal or cure them.
- Client-centered therapy founder
- Believed that three qualities of the therapist were necessary:
1. Genuineness
2. Unconditional positive regard
3. Empathic understanding
- Believed that people develop psychological problems largely because they an consistently experienced only conditional acceptance.

Carl Rogers


Means that the therapist honestly and openly shares her thoughts and feelings with the client.



The therapist must value, accept, and care for the client, whatever her problems or behavior.
- Fosters the person's natural tendency to move toward self-fulfilling decisions without fear of evaluation or rejection.

Unconditional positive regard


Reflect the content and personal meaning of the feelings being experienced by the client.
- Creates a psychological mirror, reflecting the client's thoughts and feelings as they exist in the client's private inner world.
- Requires the therapist to listen actively for the personal meaning beneath the surface of what the client is saying.

Empathic understanding


Rogers believed that when the therapeutic atmosphere contains genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and empathic understanding, change is more likely to occur. The client is moving in the direction towards this.



Designed to help clients overcome the mixed feelings or reluctance they might have about committing to change.
- More frequently applied to addictions, techniques to improve health
- More directive than traditional client-centered therapy
- When the client expresses reluctance, the therapist acknowledges the mixed feelings and redirects the emphasis toward change.

Motivational interviewing


- Founder: Sigmund Freud
- Source of problems: Repressed, unconscious conflicts stemming from early childhood experiences
- Treatment techniques: free association, analysis of dream content, interpretation, and transference.
- Goals of therapy: To recognize, work through, and resolve long-standing conflicts.



- Founder: Carl Rogers
- Source of problems: Conditional acceptance that causes the person to develop a distorted self-concept and worldview.
- Treatment techniques: Nondirective therapists who displays unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and empathic understanding.
- Goals of therapy: To develop self-awareness, self- acceptance, and self-determination

Client-centered therapy


- Founder: Based on classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning.
- Source of problems: Learned maladaptive behavior patterns
- Treatment techniques: Systemic desensitization, virtual reality, aversive conditioning, reinforcement and extinction, token economy, contingency management interventions, observational learning
- Goals of therapy: To unlearn maladaptive behaviors and replace them with adaptive, appropriate behaviors.

Behavior therapy


One of John Watson's students (little albert experiment) who wanted to explore ways to reverse conditioned fears.
- Counterconditioning
Widely regarded as one of the first behavioral psychologists.
Laid the groundwork for:
- Exposure therapy
- Systematic desensitization

Mary Cover Jones


1. The patient learns progressive relaxation
2. The therapist helps the patient construct an anxiety hierarchy (exposure hierarchy). The patient also develops an image of a relaxing control sense.
3. Involves the actual process of desensitization through exposure to feared experiences.
- Works their way up the hierarchy
4. In vivo systematic desensitization

Systemic desensitization


Involves successfully relaxing one muscle group after another until a deep state of relaxation is achieved.

Progressive relaxation


A list of anxiety-provoking images associated with the feared situation, arranged in a hierarchy from least to most anxiety-producing.

Anxiety hierarchy (exposure hierarchy)


An example is walking on a secluded beach on a sunny day.

Control scene


Exposure to the actual feared situation.

In vivo systemic desensitization


Involves patients visually following the waving finger of a therapist while simultaneously holding a mental image of disturbing memories, events, or situations.

Eye movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR)


Developed the operant conditioning model of learning.
- Shaping
- Positive and negative reinforcement
- Extinction
- Baseline rate
- Token economy
- Contingency management

B.F. Skinner


Based on the simple principal that behavior is shaped and maintained by its consequences.

Operant conditioning


Involves reinforcing successive approximations of a desired behavior. (operant conditioning)
- Used for mentally disabled by autism spectrum, intellectual disability, severe mental illness



Used to increase the incidence of desired behaviors.

Negative and positive reinforcement


The absence of reinforcement, used to reduce the occurrence of undesired behaviors.



How often each problem occurred before treatment began.
- Allows therapists to objectively measure the child's progress.

Baseline rate


A modified version of the token economy. Involves carefully specified behaviors that "earn" the individual concrete rewards.
- More narrowly focused on one or a small number of specific behaviors.

Contingency management


"You largely feel the way you think"
- Trained as both a clinical psychologist and a psychoanalyst.
- Developed the rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT)
- people are not disturbed by things, rather their view of things.
- ABC model

Albert Ellis


A: Activating event
B: Beliefs
C: Consequences.

- When an activating event occurs, it is the person's beliefs about the event that cause the consequences.

ABC model


1. It is a dire necessity for you to be loved or approved by virtually everyone in your community.
2. You must be thoroughly competent, adequate, and achieving in all possible respects if you are to consider yourself worthwhile.
3. Certain people are bad, wicked, or villainous, and they should be severely blamed and punished for their villainy. You should become extremely upset over other people's wrongdoings.
4. It is awful and catastrophic when things are not the way you would very much like them to be.
5. Human unhappiness is extremely caused, and you have little or no ability to control your bad feelings and emotions.
6.It is easier to avoid than to face difficulties and responsibilities. Avoiding difficulties whenever possible is more likely to lead to happiness than facing difficulties.
7. You need to rely on someone stronger than yourself.
8. Your past history is an all-important determinant of your present behavior. Because something once strongly afflicted your life, it should indefinitely have similar effect.
9. You should become extremely upset over other people's problems.
10. There is a single perfect solution to all human problems, and it is catastrophic if this perfect solution is not found.

Irrational Beliefs


Initially trained as a psychoanalyst.
- Developed the cognitive theory (CT) out of his research on depression.
- Found his patients do not have a need to suffer.
- Depressed people have an extremely negative view of the past, present, and future.
- Negative cognitive bias
- Focuses on correcting the cognitive biases that underline major depressive disorder and other psychological disorders.
- Caused by distorted thinking and unrealistic beliefs.

Aaron T. Beck


Consistently distorting their experiences in a negative way.

Negative cognitive bias


- Arbitrary inference
- Selective abstraction
- Overgeneralization
- Magnification and minimization
- Personalization

Types of cognitive biases


1. Help the client learn to recognize and monitor the automatic thoughts that occur without conscious effort or control.
2. The therapists help the client learn how to empirically test the reality of the automatic thoughts that are so upsetting.
- CT therapists act as a model
- Collaboration
- Used to treat MDD, anxiety disorders, BPD, eating disorders, PTSD, and relationship problems.

Steps in Cognitive therapy


-Founder: Albert Ellis
-Source of problems: Irrational beliefs
- Treatment techniques: very directive - Identify, logically dispute, and challenge irrational beliefs.
- Goals of therapy: surrender of irrational beliefs and absolutist demands.

Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT)


- Founder: Aaron T. Beck
- Source of problems: Unrealistic, distorted perceptions and interpretations of events due to cognitive biases.
- Treatment techniques: Directive collaboration - Teach client to monitor automatic thoughts, test accuracy of conclusions; correct distorted thinking and perception.
- Goals of therapy: Accurate and realistic perception of self, others, and external events.

Cognitive therapy (CT)


Encourages the client to contribute to the evaluation of the logic and accuracy of automatic thoughts.