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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Deck (94):
1

Understanding Individuals in Organizations

The Psychological Contract
The Person-Job Fit
Individual Differences

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The Psychological Contract

The overall set of expectations held by an individual with respect to what he or she will contribute to the organization and what the organization will provide in return.

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Contributions from the Individual

Effort
Ability
Loyalty
Skills
Time
Competencies

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Inducements from the Organization

Pay
Job security
Benefits
Career opportunities
Status
Promotion opportunities

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The Person-Job Fit

Reasons for poor person-job fit:
• Imperfect organizational selection procedures
• Change in both people and organizations over time.
• New New technologies require new employee skills technologies require new employee skills
• Unique individuals and unique jobs

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Individual Differences

Personal attributes that vary from one person to another.
• Physical, psychological, or emotional.

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Personality and Individual Behavior

Personality
The “Big Five” personality Traits

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Personality

The relatively stable set of psychological and behavioral attributes that distinguish one person from another.

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The “Big Five” personality Traits

C.A.N.O.E.
Agreeableness—a person’s ability to get along with others.
Conscientiousness—the the number of goals on which a person number of goals on which a person focuses.
Negative emotionality—the extent to which a person is calm, resilient, and secure.
Extraversion - A person's comfort level with relationships.
Openness—a person’s rigidity of beliefs and range of interests.

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The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

(MBTI)
A popular questionnaire that some organizations use to assess personality types.
• Is a useful method for determining communication styles and interaction preferences.
• Has questionable validity and reliability.

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MBTI Personality Types

Extraversion (E) versus Introversion (I)
Sensing (S) versus Intuition (N)
Thinking (T) versus Feeling (F)
Judging (J) versus Perceiving (P)

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Other Personality Traits at Work

Locus of Control
Self-Efficacy
Authoritarianism
Machiavellianism
Self-Esteem
Risk Propensity

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Locus of Control

The extent to which people believe that their behavior has a real effect on what happens to them.

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Internal Locus of Control

Individuals who believe they are in control of their destiny.

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External Locus of Control

Individuals who believe that external focus dictate what happens to them.

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Self-Efficacy

A person’s belief about his or her capabilities to perform a task. High self-efficacy individuals believe they can perform well while low self-efficacy individuals doubt their ability to perform.

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Authoritarianism

The extent to which an individual believes that power and status differences are appropriate within hierarchical social organizations.

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Machiavellianism

Behavior directed at gaining power and controlling the behavior of others.

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Self-Esteem

The extent to which a person believes she/he is a worthwhile individual.

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Risk Propensity

The degree to which an individual is willing to take chances and make risky decisions.

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Emotional Intelligence

EQ
Extent to which people are self-aware, can manage their emotions, can motivate themselves, express empathy, and posses social skills.

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Emotional Intelligence

Self-awareness
Managing emotions
Motivating oneself
Empathy
Social skill

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Self-awareness

A person’s capacity for being aware of how they are feeling

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Managing emotions

A person’s capacity to ensure that feelings do not interfere with getting things accomplished.

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Motivating oneself

A person's ability to remain optimistic in the face of failure.

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Empathy

A person’s ability to understand how others are feeling.

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Social skill

A person’s ability to get along with others.

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Attitudes and Individual Behavior

Attitudes
The Three Components of Attitudes
Cognitive Dissonance

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Attitudes

Complexes of beliefs and feelings that people have about specific ideas, situations, or other people.

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The Three Components of Attitudes:

– Affective component
– Cognitive component
– Intentional component

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Affective component

How we feel.
Reflects the feelings and emotions an individual individual has toward a situation.

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Cognitive component

Why we feel the way we feel.
Perceived knowledge.

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Intentional component

What we intend to do about the situation.
How a person expects to behave in a given situation.

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Cognitive Dissonance

The conflict individuals experience among their own attitudes.

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Work-Related Attitudes

Job Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction
Job Satisfaction and Work Behaviors
Organizational Commitment
Organizational Commitment and Work Behaviors

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Job Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction

An attitude that reflects the extent to which an individual is gratified or fulfilled by his or her work.

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Job Satisfaction and Work Behaviors

Job satisfaction is influenced by personal, group, and organizational factors.
Dissatisfied employees are absent from work more often, may experience stress which disrupts coworkers, and may be continually looking for another job.
High levels of job satisfaction do not necessarily lead to high job performance.
Satisfied employees are absent less often, make positive contributions, and stay with the organization.

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Organizational Commitment

An attitude that reflects an individual’s identification with and attachment to an organization.

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Organizational Commitment and Work Behaviors

Employee commitment strengthens with an individual’s age, years with the organization, sense of job security, and participation in decision making.
Committed employees have highly reliable habits, plan a longer tenure with the organization, and muster more effort in performance.

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Affect and Mood in Organizations

Positive Affectivity
Negative Affectivity

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Positive Affectivity

A tendency to be relatively upbeat and optimistic, have an overall sense of well-being, see things in a positive light, and seem to be in a good mood.

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Negative Affectivity

A tendency to be generally downbeat and pessimistic, tend to see things in a negative way, and seem to be in a bad mood.

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Perception and Individual Behavior

Perception
Selective Perception
Stereotyping

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Perception

The set of processes by which an individual becomes aware of and interprets information.

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Selective Perception

The process of screening out information that we are uncomfortable with or that contradicts contradicts our beliefs.
If selective perception causes someone to ignore important information it can become quite detrimental.

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Stereotyping

The process of categorizing or labeling people on the basis of a single attribute (e.g., gender and race).
May cost the organization valuable talent, violate federal anti-bias laws, and is likely unethical.

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Perception and Perceptual Processes

Attribution
Ways in Which Attributions Are Formed

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Attribution

A mechanism through which we observe behavior and attribute a cause to it.

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Ways in Which Attributions Are Formed:
(Each has High and Low)

Consensus
Consistency
Distinctiveness

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Consensus

The extent to which OTHER people in the SAME situation behave the SAME way.
"Abby is the ONLY one late to class." (low consensus)

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Consistency

The extent to which the SAME person behaves the SAME way at DIFFERENT times.
"Abby is always late to class" (high consistency)

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Distinctiveness

The extent to which the SAME person behaves the SAME way in OTHER situations.
"Abby is lat to everything." (high distinctiveness)

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Correct Attribution if:

Low Consensus - when the behavior/result is different from others.
High Consistency - Repeated behavior/ result.
Low Distinctiveness - When individual has similar behavior/result on other tasks.

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Stress and Individual Behavior

Stress
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
Personality Types

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Stress

A person’s response to a strong stimulus (i.e., a stressor).

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General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)

The general cycle of the stress process.
Stage 1 Alarm
Stage 2 Resistance
Stage 3 Exhaustion

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Stage 1 Alarm

Panic, wondering how to cope, and a feeling of helplessness.

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Stage 2 Resistance

Individual is actively assisting the effects of the stressor.

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Stage 3 Exhaustion

Prolonged exposure to stress causes an individual to give up.

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Personality Types

Type A personality
Type B personality

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Type A personality

Extremely competitive (aggressive), devoted to work, have a strong sense of time urgency (impatient).

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Type B personality

Less competitive, less devoted to work, have a weaker sense of time urgency.
Less likely to experience personal stress or to come into conflict with other people.

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Causes of Stress

Task Demands
Physical Demands
Role Demands
Interpersonal Demands

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Task Demands

Have to make quick decisions, critical decisions, or decisions based on inappropriate information.
Associate with the task itself.

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Physical Demands

May have extreme temperatures, poorly designed office space or threats to ones health.
Associated with the job setting.

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Role Demands

May experience role ambiguity or role conflict.

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Interpersonal Demands

May result from group pressure, leadership styles or conflicting personalities.
Associated with relationships that comfort people in organizations.

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Consequences of Stress

Negative personal consequences
Negative work-related consequences
Burnout

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Negative personal consequences

Behavioral - smoking, alcoholism, chewing gum excessively.
Psychological—sleep disturbances, depression, family problems.
Medical - backaches, high blood pressure, headaches.

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Negative work-related consequences

Poor quality
Lower productivity
Job dissatisfaction
Low morale
Lack of commitment
Withdrawal

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Burnout

A feeling of exhaustion that may develop when someone experiences too much stress for an extended period of time.

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Stress Management Strategies for Individuals

Regular exercise
Relaxation
Time management
Support Groups

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Regular exercise

Reduces tension and stress, and improves self-confidence and feelings of optimism.

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Relaxation

Allows individuals to adapt and better deal with their stress.

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Time management

Reduces stress by prioritizing activities to accomplish them in their order of importance.

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Support Groups

Socializing away from work reduces stress.

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Stress Management Strategies for Organizations

Organizations also bear the costs of stress-related claims.
Organizational wellness/stress management programs can be used to promote healthful employee activities and derive the benefits of increased organizational productivity.

78

Creativity

The ability of an individual to generate new ideas or to conceive of new perspectives in existing ideas.

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The Creative Individual

Background experiences and creativity
Personal Personal traits and creativity
Cognitive abilities and creativity

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Background experiences and creativity

Many creative individuals were neared into creative environments.

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Personal Personal traits and creativity

Creative persons have personal traits of openness, an attraction to complexity, high levels of energy, independence, autonomy, strong self-confidence, and a strong belief in their own creativity.

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Cognitive abilities and creativity

Most creative people are highly intelligent.
They are both divergent and convergent thinkers, a skill they use to see differences and similarities in situations, phenomena, and events.

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Characteristics of Creative People

Tolerance for ambiguity
Good verbal communicator
Imaginative
Reasonably intelligent

84

Situations that Enhance Creativity

Specific and difficult goals
Time pressure
Supportive culture
Heterogeneity

85

The Creative Process

Preparation
Incubation
Insight
Verification
Enhancing Creativity in Organizations

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Preparation

Formal education and training is used to “get up to speed.”
Experiences on the job provide additional knowledge and ideas.

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Incubation

A period of less intense conscious concentration during which knowledge and ideas acquired, during preparation, mature and develop.
Incubation is helped by pauses in rational thought.

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Insight

A spontaneous breakthrough in which the creative person achieves a new understanding of some problem or situation.
Patterns of thought coalesce into a new understanding.

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Verification

Determines the validity or truthfulness of the insight.
Tests Tests are conducted and prototypes are built to see if the are conducted and prototypes are built to see if the insight leads to the expected results.

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Enhancing Creativity in Organizations

Make creativity part of the organization’s culture.
Set goals for revenues from creating products and services.
Reward creativity; refrain from punishing creative failures.
Some ideas work out as expected, others don't work out as expected.

91

Types of Workplace Behavior

Withdrawal Behaviors
Organizational Citizenship

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Withdrawal Behaviors

Absenteeism occurs when an individual does not show up for work when expected for legitimate or feigned reasons.
Turnover occurs when individuals quit their jobs for workrelated or personal reasons.
Absenteeism may be a symptom of other work related problems.

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Organizational Citizenship

The behavior of individuals that makes a positive overall contribution to the organization.

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Determinants of Organizational Citizenship

Individual’s personality, attitudes, and needs.
Social context of the workplace (work group).
Organization’s capability to reward citizenship.