Chapter 19 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 19 Deck (48):
1

Group

Two or more people who interact regularly to accomplish a common purpose or goal.

2

Functional Group

A permanent group created to accomplish a number of organizational organizational purposes with purposes with an indefinite time horizon.

3

Informal or Interest Group

Created by its members for purposes that may or may not be relevant to those of the organization.

4

Task Group

A group created by the organization to accomplish a relatively narrow range of purposes within a stated time horizon.

5

Team

A group of workers who function as a unit, often with little or no supervision, to carry out work-related tasks, functions, and activities.
Sometimes are called self-managed teams, cross-functional teams teams or high performance teams , or high performance teams.

6

Benefits of teams

Give more responsibility for task performance to the workers who do the tasks.
Enable the organization to shed its bureaucracy and to promote flexibility and responsiveness.

7

Why People Join Groups and Teams

Interpersonal attraction
Group activities
Group goals
Need satisfaction
Instrumental benefits

8

Stages of Group and Team Development

Forming
Storming
Norming
Performing

9

Forming

Attempting to define the task and how it will be accomplished through discussions of task-related concepts/issues.

10

Storming

Defensiveness, intragroup competition, and the formation of factions; arguing among members, even when they agree.

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Norming

Members share acceptance of roles and sense of unity.

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Performing

The ability of the group/team to prevent or work through problems.

13

Role

The part an individual plays in helping the group reach its goals.

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Task-specialist role

Concentrating on getting the groups task accomplished.

15

Socioemotional role

Providing social and emotional support to others on the team.

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Role Structures

The set of defined roles and interrelationships among those roles that the group or team members define and accept.
Are the result of role episodes in which the expected role is translated and defined into the enacted role.

17

The Development of a Role

The first two stages of role development are group processes as the group members let the individuals know what is expected of them.
The other two parts are individual processes as the new group members perceive and enact their roles.

18

The Development of a Role

Expected Role
Sent Role
Perceived Role
Enacted Role

19

Role Structures

Role ambiguity
Role conflict
Role overload

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Role ambiguity

occurs when the sent role is unclear

21

Role conflict

Occurs when the messages and cues comprising the sent role are clear but contradictory or mutually exclusive.
Interrole conflict
Intrarole conflict
Intrasender conflict
Person-role conflict

22

Interrole conflict

Occurs when the person gets conflicting demands from different sources within the context of the same role.

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Intrarole conflict

Caused by conflicting demands from different sources.

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Intrasender conflict

Occurs when a single sources send clear but contradictory messages.

25

Person-role conflict

The discrepancy between role requirements and an individual’s values, attitudes, and needs.

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Role overload

Occurs when role expectations exceed an individual’s capacities.

27

Behavioral Norms

Norms are standards of behavior that a group accepts and expects of its members.
Norms define the boundaries between acceptable and unacceptable behavior.

28

Norm generalization

The Norm of one group cannot always be generalized to another group.

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Norm variation

Norms and their application vary within a group or team.

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Norm conformity

Group or team pressure to conform to group behavior.
Individual traits that reflect their propensity to conform.
The The influence of situational factors (e.g., group size and influence of situational factors (e.g., group size andunanimity).

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Individual responses to norm conformity:

Adopt the norms of the group.
Try to obey the “spirit” of the norms while retaining individuality.

32

Socialization

Norm conformity that occurs when a person makes the transition from being an outsider to being and insider in the organization.

33

Factors That Influence Group Cohesiveness

Increase and reduce cohesiveness
Consequences of team cohesiveness

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Factors That Increase Cohesiveness

Intergroup competition
Personal attraction
Favorable evaluation
Agreement on goals
Interaction

35

Factors That Reduce Cohesiveness

Group size
Disagreement on goals
Intragroup competition
Domination
Unpleasant experiences

36

Cohesiveness

The extent to which members are loyal and committed to the group; the degree of mutual attractiveness within the group.

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Consequences of Cohesiveness

The The interaction between cohesiveness and performance norms interaction between cohesiveness and performance norm

38

Formal and Informal Leadership

Informal leader
Formal leader

39

Informal leader

A person who engages in leadership activities but whose right to do so has not been formally recognized by the organization or group.
An informal leader, ideally, may also be the formal leader for the group or he may supplement the formal leader in fulfilling leadership roles.

40

Formal leader

A person who has been elected or designated to engage in leadership activities by the group members or who has been formally appointed or recognized by the organization as the leader for the group.

41

Conflict

A disagreement among two of more individuals of groups.

42

There is an optimal level of conflict in an organization:

Too little conflict and the organization becomes complacent and apathetic, and lacking in innovation and underperforms.
Too much conflict creates a dysfunctional organization where hostility and non-cooperation predominate, and suffers from low performance.

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Causes of Conflict

Interpersonal Conflict
Intergroup Conflict
Conflict Between Organization and the Environment

44

Interpersonal Conflict

Personality clash
Differing beliefs or perceptions

45

Intergroup Conflict

Interdependence
Different goals
Competition for scarce resources

46

Conflict Between Organization and the Environment

Conflict with competition
Conflict with consumer groups

47

Negotiation

The process in which two or more parties (people or groups) reach agreement on an issue even though they have different preferences regarding that issue.

48

Approaches to Negotiation

Psychological
Contextual
Mathematical
Behavioral