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Flashcards in Chapter 17 Deck (62):
1

The Nature of Leadership

The Meaning of Leadership
Power and Leadership
Using Power

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The Meaning of Leadership

Process: what leaders actually do.
Property: who leaders are.
Leaders

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Process: what leaders actually do.

Using noncoercive influence to shape the group’s or organization’s goals.
Helping to define organizational culture.

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Property: who leaders are.

The set of characteristics attributed to individuals perceived to be leaders.

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Leaders

People who can influence the behaviors of others without having to rely on force.
People who are accepted as leaders by others.

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Power and Leadership

Power is the ability to affect the behavior of others.
Legitimate power
Reward power
Coercive power
Referent power
Expert power

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Legitimate power

Granted through the organizational
hierarchy.

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Reward power

The power to give or withhold rewards, such as salary increases, bonuses, promotions, praise, recognition, and interesting job assignments.

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Coercive power

Is the capability to force compliance by means of psychological, emotional, or physical threat.

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Referent power

The personal power that accrues to someone based on identification, imitation, loyalty, or charisma.

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Expert power

Is derived from the possession of information or expertise.

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Using Power

Legitimate request
Instrumental compliance
Coercion
Rational persuasion
Personal identification
Inspirational appeal
Information distortion

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Legitimate request

Compliance by a subordinate with a manager’s request because the organization has given the manager the right to make the request.

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Instrumental compliance

Subordinate complies to get the reward the manager controls.

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Coercion

Threatening to fire, punish, or reprimand subordinates if they do not do something.

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Rational persuasion

Convincing subordinates that compliance is in their own best interest.

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Personal identification

Using the referent power of a superior’s desired behaviors to shape the behavior of a subordinate.

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Information distortion

Withholding or distorting information (which may create an unethical situation) to influence subordinates’ behavior.

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Traits Approach to Leadership

Assumed that a basic set of personal traits that differentiated leaders from nonleaders could be used to identify leaders and as a tool for predicting who would become leaders.
The trait approach was unsuccessful in establishing empirical relationships between traits and persons regarded
as leaders.
Hundreds of studies boil down to five common traits…

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Leadership Behaviors

Michigan Studies (Rensis Likert)
Ohio State Studies

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Michigan Studies (Rensis Likert)

Job-centered behavior
Employee-centered behavior
These two forms of leader behaviors were considered to be at opposite ends of the same continuum and similar to (respectively) Likert’s System 1 and System 4 of organizational design.

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Job-centered behavior

Managers who pay close attention to
subordinates’ work, explain work procedures, and are keenly interested in performance.

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Employee-centered behavior

The behavior of leaders who develop cohesive work groups and ensure employee satisfaction.

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Ohio State Studies

The studies did not interpret leader behavior as being one dimensional as did the Michigan studies.
Identified two basic leadership styles that can be exhibited simultaneously:
• Initiating-structure behavior
• Consideration behavior

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Initiating-structure behavior

The behavior of leaders who define the leader; subordinate role so that everyone knows what is expected, establish formal lines of communication, and determine how tasks will be performed.

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Consideration behavior

The leader shows concern for subordinates and attempts to establish a friendly and supportive climate.

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Ohio State Studies Assumptions:

Leaders who exhibit high levels of both behaviors would be most effective leaders.

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Situational Approaches to Leadership

Least-Preferred Coworker Theory (Fiedler)
Path-Goal Theory (Evans and House)
Vroom Decision Tree Approach
The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Approach

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Situational Models of Leader Behavior Assumes:

Appropriate leader behavior varies from one situation to another.
Key situational factors that are interacting to determine appropriate leader behavior can be identified.

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Least-Preferred Coworker Theory (Fiedler)

The appropriate style of leadership varies with situational favorableness (from the leader’s viewpoint).
Contingency variables determining situational favorableness:
• Leader-member relations
• Task structure
• Position Power

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Leader-member relations

The nature of the relationship between the leader and the work group.

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Task structure

The degree to which the group's task is well defined.

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Position Power

the power vested in the leader’s position.

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Least preferred coworker (LPC)

The measuring scale that asks leaders to describe the person with with whom they are least able to work well. whom they are least able to work well.
High LPC scale scores indicate a relationship orientation; low LPC scores indicate a task orientation on the part of the leader.

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Path-Goal Theory (Evans and House)

The primary functions of a leader are to make valued or desired rewards available in the workplace and to clarify for the subordinate the kinds of behavior that will lead to goal accomplishment or rewards.

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Path-Goal Theory Leader Behaviors:

Directive leader behavior
Supportive leader behavior
Participative leader behavior
Achievement-oriented leader behavior

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Directive leader behavior

Letting subordinates know what is expected of them, giving guidance and direction, and scheduling work.

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Supportive leader behavior

Being friendly and approachable, showing concern for subordinates' welfare, and treating members and equals.

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Participative leader behavior

Consulting with subordinates, soliciting suggestions, and allowing participation in decision making.

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Achievement-oriented leader behavior

Setting challenging goals, expecting subordinates to perform at high levels, encouraging and showing confidence in subordinates.

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Vroom Decision Tree Approach

Attempts to prescribe a leadership style appropriate to a given situation.
Decision significance
Decision Timeliness

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Vroom Decision-Making Styles

Decide
Consult (individually)
Consult (group)
Facilitate
Delegate

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Decide

The manager makes the decision alone and then announces or "sells" it to the group.

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Consult (individually)

Manager presents program to group
members individually, obtains their suggestions, then makes the decision.

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Consult (group)

The manager presents the problem to group members at a meeting, gets the suggestions, and then makes the decisions.

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Facilitate

Manager presents the problem to the group, defines the problem and its boundaries, and then facilitates group member discussion as they make the decision.

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Delegate

Manager allows the group to define for itself the exact nature and parameters of the problem and then develop a solution.

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The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Approach

Stresses the importance of variable relationships between supervisors and each of their subordinates.
Leaders form unique independent relationships (“vertical dyads”) with each subordinate in which the subordinate becomes a member of the leader’s out-group or in-group.

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Related Perspectives on Leadership

Substitutes for Leadership
Charismatic Leadership (House)
Transformational Leadership

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Substitutes for Leadership

A concept that identifies situations in which leader behavior is neutralized or replaced by characteristics of subordinates, the task, and the organization.

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Charismatic Leadership (House)

Charisma, an interpersonal attraction that inspires support and acceptance, is an individual characteristic of a leader.
Charismatic persons are more successful than noncharismatic persons.
Charismatic leaders are self-confident, have a firm conviction in their belief and ideals, and possess a strong need to influence people.

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Charismatic leaders in organizations must be able to:

Envision the future, set high expectations, and model behaviors consistent with expectations.
Energize energize others through a demonstration of excitement, others through a demonstration of excitement, personal confidence, and patterns of success.
Enable others by supporting them, by empathizing with them.

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Transformational Leadership

Leadership that goes beyond ordinary expectations, by transmitting a sense of mission, stimulating learning, and inspiring new ways of thinking.

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Transformational Leadership Seven keys to successful leaders:

Encouraging risk
Being an expert
Inviting dissent
Simplifying things

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Political Behavior

The activities carried out for the specific purpose of acquiring, developing, and using power and other resources to obtain one’s preferred outcomes.

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Common Political Behaviors

Inducement
Persuasion
Creation of an obligation
Coercion
Impression management

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Inducement

Offering to give something to someone else in return for that person’s support.

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Persuasion

Relies on both emotion and logic.

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Creation of an obligation

Providing support for another person’s position that obliges that person to return the favor at a future date.

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Coercion

using force to get one’s way.

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Impression management

Making a direct and intentional effort to enhance one’s image in the eyes of others.

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Managing Political Behavior

Be aware that even if actions are not politically motivated, others may assume that they are.
Reduce the likelihood of subordinates engaging in political behavior by providing them with autonomy, responsibility,
challenge, and feedback.
Avoid using power to avoid charges of political motivation.