Chapter 16 - Final Exam Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 - Final Exam Deck (19):
1

Definition of Adulthood

21-64 y/o
no standard definitions of adulthood
focus on development and maintenance of most healthful nutritional habits

2

Early Adulthood

21-39 y/o
20's - planning and preparing food are newly developed skills
30's - renewed interest in nutrition

3

Midlife

40-64 y/o
active family responsibilities
managing schedules and meals become problems
recognition of ones mortality

4

Later Adulthood

65 + y/o
transition to retirement
more leisure time (greater attention to PA and nutrition)
significant # have children/grandchildren living at home

5

Food Roles

source of fuel (can survive w/o food for ~ 2 months)
enjoyment and comfort
symbol of traditions, rituals, celebrations

6

Importance of Nutrition

nutrition and exercise are among main lifestyle changes that reduce risk of 5 of 10 leading causes of death
cancer, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, liver disease

7

Healthy People 2010

good progress towards goals of Healthy People 2010;
rates of heart disease/obesity/diabetes/ stroke deaths have declined
current problems (increased rates of obesity and diabetes, and health care disparities)

8

Physiological Status of Adulthood

nutritional emphasis: maintain physical status (muscle strength), avoid excess fat, peak performance for many activities reached during adulthood (cycling, soccer, running)
adequate nutrition is needed to replace body cells (5% of adult cells replaced daily, rejuvenation varies by cell type

9

Physiological Changes in Males

gradual testosterone decline begins at age 40-50
dietary links to climacteric changes: underweight = lower sperm, malnutrition = low libido, alcohol = defective sperm
body weight rises beggining ~ 40 y/o

10

Physiological Changes in Females

Menopause - loss of estrogen, leads to: increased abdominal fat, and risk of osteoporosis
cessation of menopause, iron needs lower from 18 mg/d to 8 mg/d

11

Maintaining Healthy Body

weight management is primary nutrition concern during adulthood
caloric expenditure lowers during adulthood due to lower metabolic rate and activity level
weight gain between 40 - 60 y/o
males - 0.3 kg/yr
females - 0.55 kg/yr

12

Determining Energy Needs

gender/body size/muscle mass (males use 5-10% more cal due to more lean mass
activity levels (exercise = more energy spent)
health issues (starvation slows energy expenditure by 20-30%
hormones (red. estrogen leads to weight gain)
individual variation (individuals may vary by as much as 20% in expenditure for same activity

13

Energy Intake

Males: 20-39 y/o (2830 cal) , 40-59 y/o (2600 cal) , 60-69 y/o (2100 cal)
Females: 20-39 y/o (2000 cal) , 40-59 y/o (1830 cal) , 60-69 y/o (1600 cal)

14

Fad Diets

supports multi-billion dollar industry
promote fast and easy way to lose weight
characterized by: inadequate nutrition supply, caloric restrictions, unusual food restrictions, gimmicks like no food after 7pm

15

Dietary Recommendations

acceptable macronutrient distribution:
fat: 20-30% of calories
carbohydrates: 45-65% of calories
protein: 10-35% of calories
focus on greater amounts of fruits/veggies/fiber/ low-fat dairy products, limiting sat. fat, less sugar, sodium, regular PA

16

Intake Recommendations

beverage intake in dietary guidance systems:
adults consume 400 cal/d from beverages
consume fewer bev. w/ fats and added sugar
plan bev intake as part of total cal intake
make bev choice that fits into dairy, fruit, and vegetable groups

17

Nutrients of Public Health Concern

Fiber: 38 g/d for males, 25 g/d for females
Folate: 400 mcg/d
Sodium: 1500 mg/d
Calcium: 1000 mg/d

18

Nutrition and Health Promotion

*variety and nutrition* in choosing diet that will achieve and maintain a healthy body weight when combined with PA

19

PA Recommendations

ACSM - at least 30 mins/d of moderate PA on 5 or more d/wk
moderate: activity that burns 210-420 Kcal/hr
walking for 1 mi = ~100 Kcal
biking for 5 mi = ~ 200 Kcal
resistance training 2-3 times a week for 30 min/d