Chapter 16 - Final Exam Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 - Final Exam Deck (19):

Definition of Adulthood

21-64 y/o
no standard definitions of adulthood
focus on development and maintenance of most healthful nutritional habits


Early Adulthood

21-39 y/o
20's - planning and preparing food are newly developed skills
30's - renewed interest in nutrition



40-64 y/o
active family responsibilities
managing schedules and meals become problems
recognition of ones mortality


Later Adulthood

65 + y/o
transition to retirement
more leisure time (greater attention to PA and nutrition)
significant # have children/grandchildren living at home


Food Roles

source of fuel (can survive w/o food for ~ 2 months)
enjoyment and comfort
symbol of traditions, rituals, celebrations


Importance of Nutrition

nutrition and exercise are among main lifestyle changes that reduce risk of 5 of 10 leading causes of death
cancer, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, liver disease


Healthy People 2010

good progress towards goals of Healthy People 2010;
rates of heart disease/obesity/diabetes/ stroke deaths have declined
current problems (increased rates of obesity and diabetes, and health care disparities)


Physiological Status of Adulthood

nutritional emphasis: maintain physical status (muscle strength), avoid excess fat, peak performance for many activities reached during adulthood (cycling, soccer, running)
adequate nutrition is needed to replace body cells (5% of adult cells replaced daily, rejuvenation varies by cell type


Physiological Changes in Males

gradual testosterone decline begins at age 40-50
dietary links to climacteric changes: underweight = lower sperm, malnutrition = low libido, alcohol = defective sperm
body weight rises beggining ~ 40 y/o


Physiological Changes in Females

Menopause - loss of estrogen, leads to: increased abdominal fat, and risk of osteoporosis
cessation of menopause, iron needs lower from 18 mg/d to 8 mg/d


Maintaining Healthy Body

weight management is primary nutrition concern during adulthood
caloric expenditure lowers during adulthood due to lower metabolic rate and activity level
weight gain between 40 - 60 y/o
males - 0.3 kg/yr
females - 0.55 kg/yr


Determining Energy Needs

gender/body size/muscle mass (males use 5-10% more cal due to more lean mass
activity levels (exercise = more energy spent)
health issues (starvation slows energy expenditure by 20-30%
hormones (red. estrogen leads to weight gain)
individual variation (individuals may vary by as much as 20% in expenditure for same activity


Energy Intake

Males: 20-39 y/o (2830 cal) , 40-59 y/o (2600 cal) , 60-69 y/o (2100 cal)
Females: 20-39 y/o (2000 cal) , 40-59 y/o (1830 cal) , 60-69 y/o (1600 cal)


Fad Diets

supports multi-billion dollar industry
promote fast and easy way to lose weight
characterized by: inadequate nutrition supply, caloric restrictions, unusual food restrictions, gimmicks like no food after 7pm


Dietary Recommendations

acceptable macronutrient distribution:
fat: 20-30% of calories
carbohydrates: 45-65% of calories
protein: 10-35% of calories
focus on greater amounts of fruits/veggies/fiber/ low-fat dairy products, limiting sat. fat, less sugar, sodium, regular PA


Intake Recommendations

beverage intake in dietary guidance systems:
adults consume 400 cal/d from beverages
consume fewer bev. w/ fats and added sugar
plan bev intake as part of total cal intake
make bev choice that fits into dairy, fruit, and vegetable groups


Nutrients of Public Health Concern

Fiber: 38 g/d for males, 25 g/d for females
Folate: 400 mcg/d
Sodium: 1500 mg/d
Calcium: 1000 mg/d


Nutrition and Health Promotion

*variety and nutrition* in choosing diet that will achieve and maintain a healthy body weight when combined with PA


PA Recommendations

ACSM - at least 30 mins/d of moderate PA on 5 or more d/wk
moderate: activity that burns 210-420 Kcal/hr
walking for 1 mi = ~100 Kcal
biking for 5 mi = ~ 200 Kcal
resistance training 2-3 times a week for 30 min/d