Chapter 11 - Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 - Exam 2 Deck (22):

Who are Children with Special Health Care Needs?

> 40 dif. formal definitions of disability
est. 5-31% of children classified with disabiltiy
(90% of children with dis. have nutrition problem)


Disability Services

toddlers and preschoolers with chronic conditions are eligible for same services as adults
Americans with Disabilities Act
Social Security Disability Program
Supplemental Social Security Insurance Program
additional services (nutritional services)


Eligibility for Early Intervention

Services based on;
-developmental delays (cognitive, physical, language/speech, or psychological
-physical or mental condition with high prob. of delay (down syndrome)
-at risk medically or environ. for substantial delay
*specific diagnosis not required*


Nutrition Needs of Toddlers/Preschoolers with Chronic Conditions

DRI's apply as starting point for setting caloric needs (specific adjustments based on condition and customized for each child)
*important to distinguish between intake problems with conditions or just "growing up"


Feeding Problems

special health care needs cause feeding problems that add on to typical feeding problems of average toddler/preschooler
ex; low interest in eating, long mealtimes, food refusal, excessive fluid intake


Failure to Thrive (FTT)

inadequate wt/ht gain with growth
may result from; digestive problems, asthma/breathing problems, neurological porblems, pediatric AIDS, abuse/medical neglect


Cystic Fibrosis

1 in 1,500-2,000 births
life threatening hereditary disorder affecting cells that produce mucus, sweat, saliva, and digestive enzymes
mucus is thick and sticky
symptoms; wheezing/coughing, bulky/greasy stools, bowel blockage, delayed growth
mutation on chromosome 7


Cystic Fibrosis: Nutrition

Supplemental high cal nutrition
enteric-coated oral pancreatic
aerobic exercise


Pulmonary Problems

ex's; brochopulmonary dysplasia (damage of underdeveloped lungs), asthma
~80% of ELBW infants develop chronic lung problems


Pulmonary Problems: Nutrition

increased nutrient needs due to extra energy expanded in breathing and lower interest in eating


Autism Spectrum Disorders

brain development disorder (impaired social skills, restriced/repetitive behavior)
onset generally < 3 yo
~1/166 (~27,000/4 mil)


Autism: Diet

no scientifically proven diet is recommended for prevention or treatment
gluten/casein-free diets have been recommended by non-scientific sources (not consistent with clinical trials)


Rett Syndrome

1 in 10,000
development normal until 12-18 mo
loss of purposeful hand use, hand wringing, growth retardation, seizures, loss of speech, constipation


Muscle Coordination/Cerebral Palsy

2-2.5/1,000 (~40-50% LBW-ELBW)
impaired muscle activity and coordinationduring voluntary movement, present at birth or developed during early childhood


Cerebral Palsy: Nutrition

caloric needs may be higher or lower than expected (ex: higher in effort to walk, lower in wheelchair)


Prader-Willi Syndrome

1 in 25,000
poor muscle tone and motor skills, short stature, hypogonadism, learning disabilities, behavioral problems (temper/sleep apnea), characteristic facial feature, overweight
failure to thrive in 1st year


Prader-Willi Syndrome: Nutrition

heavy on veggies/fruits, breads/rice/pasta, little dairy, and little meats


Chronic Conditions with High Energy Needs

cystic fibrosis, renal disease, ambulatory children with diplegia, pediatric AIDS


Chronic Conditions with Low Energy Needs

down syndrome, spina bifida, non-ambulatory diplegia, prader-willi syndrome


Toddler Diarrhea

"toddler diarrhea" typically caused by execss sucrose content of fruit juices (AAP rec limiting juice intake to 4-6 fl oz/day for 1-6 yo)


Celiac Disease

sensitivity to gluten in wheat, rye, barley (oats often x-contaminated)
results in diarrhea


Food Allergies

true food allergies seen in ~2-8% of children
common types; milk, eggs, wheat, peanuts, walnuts, soy, fish