Chapter 14 - Final Exam Flashcards Preview

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Time of profound biological, emotional, social, and cog. changes from 11-21 yrs old
develop personal identity and sep. from parents



Time frame when body matures from that of a child to an adult
Average ages for puberty;
Females: 10.5 - 14 yrs old
Males: 12 - 16.5 yrs old


Cognitive maturation

12 - 16 yrs old


Psychosocial maturation

Early: 12 - 14 yrs
Middle: 14 - 17 yrs
Late: 17 - 21 yrs


Nutritional needs (in time of change)

biological, psychosocial, and cog. changes affect nutritional status
rapid growth ups nutr. needs
desire for independence may cause adoption of bad habits (meal skipping, fad diets)


Maturation and nutritional needs

sexual maturation (biological age), not chronological age, is used to assess nutritional needs


Sexual Maturation Rating (SMR) or "Tanner Stages"

SMR = scale of secondary sexual characteristics used to asses degree of pubertal maturation
- SMR based of breast development/pubic hair appearance (females), and testicular/penile development/appearance of pubic hair (males)


SMR stages

SMR 1: prepubertal growth and development
SMR 2-4: occurrences of puberty
SMR 5: sexual maturation has concluded


Female SMR stages

#: (breast devel/pubic hair growth)
1: nipple elevation only/no pubic hair
2: small, raised breast bud/sparse growth at labia
3: gen. enlarg. of raising breast, areola/ pigmentation, coarsening, curling, ^ amount
4: further enlargement, proj. areloa/ hair matches adult type, not at medial thighs yet
5: mature, adult contour, areola matches breast contour and nipple proj./ adult type, quantity, spread to medial thighs


Male SMR stages

#: (gentital dev/ pubic hair growth)
1: no change in size, proportion/ no pubic hair
2: enlarg. scrotum, testes, little or no penis enlag/ sparse growth of hair at base of penis
3: increase of lgth, then wdth of penis, groth of testes, scrotum/ darkening, coarsening, curling, ^ amount
4: enlarg. penis with growth in breadth, devel of glands, further growth of testes, scrotum/ hair matches adult type, not at medial thighs yet
5: adult shape, size/ adult type, amount, spread to medial thighs


Maturation and Growth of females

Height Spurt: 9.5-14.5 yrs (spike ~12 yrs)
Breast: 8-13 yrs (SMR 1-3) 13-18 yrs (SMR 4-5)
Pubic Hair: 10-15 yrs
Menarche: onset of 1st menstrual period, occurs 2-4 yrs after initial devel of breast buds
^average age; 12.4 yrs (9-27 yrs) during SMR 4
Severely restrictive diets may delay age of menarche


Peak growth for females

occurs during SMR 2-3, ~6-12 months prior to menarche
growth spurt lasts ~ 24-26 months, ceasing by ~ 16 yrs
as much as 50% of adult weight is gained during adoles.
increases of ~ 44% leam body mass and 120% in body fat which leads to body dissatisfaction


Maturation and Growth of males

height spurt: 10.5-16 yrs, 13.5-17.5 yrs
penis: 10.5-14.5 yrs 12.5-16.5 yrs
testes: 9.5-13.5 yrs 13.5-17 yrs
pubic hair: 11.5-15.5 yrs
"spermarche": 14 yrs (9.5-17 yrs)


Peak growth for males

occurs during SMR 4, ~ 14.4 yrs
spurt lasts throughout adolescence ceasing by ~ 21 yrs
peak wt. growth coincides with peak linear growth and peak muscle mass accumulation
muscles gain ~ 9 kg/yr and body fat stabilizes ~ 12%


Normal psychosocial development

further develop: sense of personal identity, moral/ethical value system, feelings of self-esteem or self-worth, vision of occupational aspirations


Three periods of psychosocial development

early adolescence: 11-14 yrs
middle adolescence: 15-17 yrs
late adolescence: 18-21 yrs


Health/Eating factors during adolescence

factors affecting eating behaviors:
peer influence, food availability/preference/cost, personal/cultural beliefs, mass media, body image, parental modeling


Health/Eating behaviors during adolescence

Snacking: common (1-7 snacks/d), account for 40% daily energy intakes, tend to be higher in sodium, sugar, and fat, and low in vit/min
meal skipping: breakfast most commonly skipped meal (only 21% of adoles. females eat breakfast daily


Vegetarian diets dring adolescence

~ 4% folly veg. diet
Suggested foods for lacto-ovo and vegan diets;
9-12 breads, grains, or cereal
2-3+ legumes
4-5+ vegetables
4+ fruits


Adolescent: dietary inadequacy

most have inadequate consumption of;
dairy, grains, fruit, veggies


Energy/Nutrient requirements

needs are high, need to correspond to physical maturation stage
influenced by: activity level, basal metabolic rate (BMR), pubertal growth/development
males have higher caloric needs than females


Protein requirements

influenced by: need to maintain existing LBM, or need for growth of *new* LBM
DRI: 0.95 g/kg (9-13 yrs) and 0.85 g/kg (14-18 yrs) of body wt.
low intake linked to reductions in linear growth, delays in sexual maturation, low LBM


Calcium requirements

DRI: 1300 mg/d (9-18 yrs)
average intake; males (1260 mg) females (948)


Iron requirements

increased needs related to: rapid rate of linear growth, ^ blood volume, menarche in females
females; greatest needs after menarche (8 mg/d for 9-13 yrs, 15 mg/d in 14-18 yrs)
males; greatest need during growth spurt (8 mg/d for 9-13 yrs, 11 mg/d in 14-18 yrs)


Iron deficiency

low stores of iron
often undiagnosed
9% of 12-15 y/o females
11% of 15-19 y/o females
5% of 12-15 y/o males
2% of 15-19 y/o males


Iron deficiency anemia

more advanced stage of iron deficiency
determined by hemoglobin or hematocrit levels
clinical findings: fatigue, reduced immunocompetence, inadequate muscle function, cardiac failure
< 1% adolescent males
2% adolescent females


Folate requirements

required for DNA, RNA and protein synthesis
300 mcg/d for 9-13 y/o
400 mcg/d for 14-18 y/o
folate fortified foods better absorbed than natural foods


Vitamin requirements

Vit. C - deficiency rare in US
Vit. D - insufficiency ~ 39% females, ~29% males, DRI = 600 IU/d


Nutrition screening, assessment, and intervention

screening should include:
wt, ht, BMI
disordered eating techniques
blood lipid levels
blood pressure
iron status (hemoglobin/hematocrit)
food security/insecurity


Physical activity (PA)

PA - body movement produced by skeletal muscles resulting in energy expenditure
exercise - PA that is planned, structured, and repetitive, and done to maintain fitness
physical fitness - set of attributes that are either health/skill related


Benefits of PA

improves aerobic endurance/muscular strength
reduces risk of obesity
improves self esteem
lowers anxiety/stress


PA recommendations

60 mins or more at least 3 times a week
only 35% meet guidelines
more males than females meet it
more white teens vs. african american teens meet it
about 1/2 attend a PA class at least once a week, but most occurs outside of school