Chapter 8 - Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Exam 2 Deck (28):

Full Term Infant

37-42 weeks
2500-3800 g (5.5-8.5 lbs)
47-54 cm (18.5-21.5 in)
88% of US infants


Infant Mortality

death occurs within first year
major cause - low birth weight


Infant Mortality (factors associated)

Social and economical statues
access to health care
medical interventions
teen pregnancy


Palmar reflex

Baby grasps object placed in the palm of its hand


Rooting reflex

When baby's cheek is stroked, turns head toward side of stimulation and opens its mouth


Sucking relfex

baby sucks when an object is placed in its mouth


Motor development

Top down, controls head first and legs last
Central to peripheral
influences ability to feed and amount of energy expended


Cognitive development

sensorimotor development
interactions with the environment
adequate energy and protein
stimulation of social and emotional growth


Growth assessment

newborns double birthweight by 4-6 months, and triple it by 1 year
growth reflects - nutritional adequacy, health status, economic and environmental adequacy
weight and length are important components of growth assessment


Interpretation of growth data

CDC 2000 infant growth charts based on national surveys
Charts show; weight/length for age, weight for length, head circumference for age


Warning signs of growth rate

lack of wt/lgth gain
plateau in wt/lgth or HC for > 1 mo.
drop in wt without regain in few weeks


Infant Caloric Needs

Energy (calories):
108 kcal/kg/day from birth to 6 mo.
98 kcal/kg/day from 7-12 mo.
(ex:) newborn weighs 4 kg needs 108 x 4 = 432 kcal/day


Infant Protein Needs

2.2g/kg/day from birth to 6 mo.
1.6 g/kg/day from 7-12 mo.


Infant Fat Needs

31 g/day from birth to 6 mo.
30 g/day from 7-12 mo.
breast milk contains ~ 55% calories from fat
need cholesterol for gonad and brain development


Breast milk vs. formula

AAP and ADA rec. exclusive breast feeding for 1st 6 mo and continuation to 1 year
initiate breast feeding right after birth
standard formula provides 20 cal/fl oz


Cow's milk-based formula during infancy

AAP - whole, red.-fat, or skim cows milk should NOT be used in infancy
iron deficiency anemia linked to early intro to cows milk (low iron in cows milk)
breast milk vs. cows milk-based formula
7% vs. 9-12% cal from protein
38% vs. 41-43% cal from carbs
55% vs. 48-50% cal form fat


Soybean-based formula

soy protein in place of milk protein should be limited in use
lactose free and hydrolyzed formulas are better for infants unable to breastfeed or be fed cows milk formulas


Development of Infant feeding skills

at 4-6 weeks, reflexes start to fade, begin to purposefully signal wants/needs
at 4-6 mo. infants move tongue from side to side indicating readiness for solid foods


Introduction of solid foods

food offered from spoon stimulates muscle development
at ~ 6mo. offer small portions of semisoft food on a spoon once twice each day


Solid foods for infants

infants; can swallow pureed soupy foods at 4-6 mo.
early intro of lumpy foods can cause choking, can swallow very soft, lumpy foods at 6-8 mo.
by 8-10 mo. can eat soft mashed foods


First foods

4-6 mo. - iron fortified baby cereal mixed with breast milk
6 mo. - pureed fruits and veggies
only one new food over 2-3 days
9-12 mo. - soft table foods
first foods may appear rejected due to immature tongue movement


Feeding cues

cues infants may give for readiness for feeding;
watching food being opened
tight fists/reaching for spoon
irritation if feeding is too slow or stops
playing with food/spoon
slow intake/stop eating or spiting out food when full


Supplements for infants

Fluoride - for breastfeeding infants after 6 mo or if in area with no fluoridated water
Iron - after 4-6 mo if breastfed
Vit B12 - for vegans
Vit D - needed if exclusively breastfed



Breast milk or formula generally provide adequate water for healthy infants
avoid colas and tea, and limit juice


Failure to Thrive (FTT)

inadequate wt/lgth gain
may be organic (due to infection, etc.) or inorganic (maternal depression, inappropriate infant care, over-dilution of formula/poverty)
FTT is one reason social service agencies get involved with families



sudden onset of irritability and crying without discernable reason in healthy infant


Lactose intolerance

inability to digest disaccharide lactose (glucose + galactose)
uncommon and overestimated, treated with lactose-free formula


Newborn Screening

most states screen for 3-6 (some up to 57) conditions that may cause disability or death