Chapter 16 Innate Immunity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 Innate Immunity Deck (71):
1

What does Carl Zimmer say is like trying to reproduce the Sistine Chapel in Crayon?

to sum up what scientists have learned about the immune system

2

What defenses/immunity do you have that are present at birth, before contact with microbes?

Innate defenses

3

Which type of immunity, innate or adaptive, is not very specific and does not change/improve with use?

Innate: not as specific
does not change with use
born with it

4

What type of immunity is developed over time, is VERY specific, and get's better with use (has memory)?

Adaptive immunity

5

What is your skin, an innate defense or an adaptive defense?

Innate

6

How often does your epidermis turn over?

6 weeks

7

list physical/chemical characteristics of the epidermis that make it a great defense.
(list 6 or 7 things)

* several layers
* tightly packed cells
* keratinized
* dead (nutrition poor)
* No blood vessels
* Dry
* Sebum/ Oil Glands (salt, antimicrobial peptides, lysozyme, sebum)
* High turnover: every 6 weeks
* Normal flora

8

Name the 4 parts of the Dermis

* Collagen Fibers
* Dendritic Cells (Langerhans)
* Sebaceous glands
* Blood vessels

9

Name the 3 Phagocytic cells discussed in class

* Neutrophils
* Macrophages
* Dendritic Cells

10

What is the active process of engulfing very large particles or cells?

Phagocytosis

11

What is Lysozyme and what does it digest?

*Giant enzyme
*digests peptidoglycan

12

The dermis is nutritious for bacteria because it is rich in blood vessels, but why is this also bad for bacteria?

because white blood cells can arrive quickly through the blood stream

13

Some phagocytic cells use __________ to track the bacteria through our tissues

chemotaxis

14

All Phagocytic white blood cells are ______

motile

15

What are TLR's and are they innate or adaptive?

Toll-like Receptors
innate (born with them)

16

What is the name for the molecules found on our white blood cells (and some epithelial cells) that bind to PAMPS?

Toll-like Receptors (TLR)

17

PAMPS are molecules found on pathogens often with wide distribution. What does PAMPS stand for?

Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns

18

What are Mannans?

TLRs found in yeast cell walls

19

What is the name of the system of the body that is a Network of fibers and phagocytes found within and between organs?
(system not learned in 224)

Reticulo-endothelial system

20

All phagocytic cells have 2 things in common. What are they?

*they are all Motile/move
*Active processes (use a lot of ATP)

21

What is a negative side effect of phagocytosis?

leakage of toxic chemicals, bi-products

22

What type of membranes line all openings into the body?

Mucous Membranes

23

Where would you find all of these things?
*Hyaluronic Acid
*Regeneration
*Goblet cells (mucus)
*Cilia
*Antimicrobial peptides
*Lysozyme
*Phagocytes
*ANTIBODIES (Adaptive)

Mucous Membrane

24

How do phagocytes know what to eat?

by what their TLR (Toll-like Receptors) recognize
(they recognize PAMPS, structures found on bacteria, viruses, etc.)

25

LPS is a TLR found on Gram-________ cells

Gram-Negative

26

Lipoteichoic acid is a TLR found on Gram-________ cells

Gram-Positive

27

GPI anchors are TLR found on _________

Parasites

28

Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a TLR associated with _____ replicating

virus replicating

29

Name the bacterial enzyme that breaks down Hyaluronic Acid

Hyaluronidase

30

How do some pathogens become unrecognizable to TLRs?

they mutate or evolve

31

Where in the lymphatic system will you find a lot of phagocytes?

lymph nodes

32

There are a lot of phagocytes by our ___________ area in our body

respiratory

33

What is Bystander damage?

leakage of toxic chemicals

34

What does Complement mean?

every position filled, all work together to do one job

35

proenzymes are ________, they must be metabolized into enzymes (activated)

inactive

36

how many different proenzymes are in the Complement system?

>20 different

37

Are Complement proteins temperature sensitive?

yes, very

38

Some mutations on TLRs, are the cause of __________ disease

autoimmune diseases

39

The complement activates by binding to Bacterial ________. It inserts itself into the bacterial cell membrane.

binds to bacterial proteins

40

What does the complement do once it binds to the bacterial protein and inserts itself into the cell membrane?

pokes a hole in bacterial cell membrane, forms rings on bacteria

41

What does Lectin do?
(found on bacterial surface)

mediate attachment and binding
(carbohydrate binding)

42

Once a complement activates by binding to bacterial proteins and poking the hole in cell membrane, it forms the rings by getting other complement proteins from the _____, to do the same thing

blood

43

What do you call the substance (small proteins) secreted by cells of the immune system that have a specific effect on the interactions and communications between cells?

cytokines

44

What substance is released in your body when you're sick that causes your whole body to feel achy and causes everything to be a little more sensitive to pain?
(tells you to lay down and take it easy)

Prostaglandins

45

Name the protein we make that interferes with viruses. We make this protein when a cell becomes infected by a virus.

Interferon

46

Who secretes the Interferons and who are they for?

The cell infected by the virus secretes the Interferons for neighboring cells

47

What types of genes do Interferons turn on and which cells will be saved by Interferons?

they turn on anti-viral genes
Interferons save healthy, non-infected cells

48

What does IFN- alpha and IFN- beta stand for?

two different types of Interferons

49

Are Interferon's part of adaptive immunity or innate immunity?

innate immunity

50

Name the 3 proteins that humans make to hide Iron (from bacteria)

* Lactoferrin
* Transferrin
* Ferritin

51

Name the Enzyme that Bacteria has that steals Iron (Fe) back from us when we hide it.

Siderophores

52

Name the 4 things that must occur for something to be classified as inflammation

* Redness
* Swelling
* Heat
* Pain

53

What causes the feeling of pain during inflammation?

nerve sensitivity due to prostaglandins

54

What is the actual thing causing the swelling during inflammation?

neutrophils, fluid, blood

55

What causes the Heat during inflammation?

blood and cell activity

56

Name the 3 main inflammatory chemicals released when there's damage to tissues

* Histamines
* Prostaglandins
* Leukotrienes

57

When inflammatory chemicals (molecules) diffuse through tissues, they run into blood vessels. What do these chemicals cause the blood vessels to do?

blood vessels dilate to slow down the blood

58

What are found in the cells that line the blood vessel that slow down the neutrophils?

hooks

59

What do healthy cells have that notice that a fellow cell has been infected by a virus and started secreting Interferons?

Interferon receptors

60

What do the anti-viral proteins released because of Interferons actually do to a virus that may show up?

*degrades nucleic acids of the virus
*blocks virus replication

61

Translate ' Rubor et tumor cum calore et dolore'

* Redness
* Swelling
* Heat
* Pain

62

The tiny foreign little shapes that your white blood cells can stick to and recognize are called ________

antigens

63

Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids that we don't have are all antigens.
true or false?

true

64

Why does chronic inflammation give you a higher risk of cancer?

because the excessive phagocytic activity produces an excessive amount of toxic by-products being released which can negatively effect healthy surrounding cells

65

Where are T cells made?
Where do T cells mature?

Bone Marrow
Thymus

66

Where are B cells made?
Where do B cells mature?

Bone Marrow
Bone Marrow

67

Where are APC (antigen-presenting cells) made?
Where do APC's mature?

Bone Marrow
Mature all over the place

68

What is the name of the receptor gene found in T cells?

Somatic hypermutation T cell receptor gene

69

Each T cell that you make in the bone marrow has a different T-cell receptor.
true or false?

true

70

What's another name for the T helper cell?

CD4

71

What's another name for the T cytotoxic cell?

CD8