Flashcards in Chapter 16 Innate Immunity Deck (71):
What does Carl Zimmer say is like trying to reproduce the Sistine Chapel in Crayon?
to sum up what scientists have learned about the immune system
What defenses/immunity do you have that are present at birth, before contact with microbes?
Which type of immunity, innate or adaptive, is not very specific and does not change/improve with use?
Innate: not as specific
does not change with use
born with it
What type of immunity is developed over time, is VERY specific, and get's better with use (has memory)?
What is your skin, an innate defense or an adaptive defense?
How often does your epidermis turn over?
list physical/chemical characteristics of the epidermis that make it a great defense.
(list 6 or 7 things)
* several layers
* tightly packed cells
* dead (nutrition poor)
* No blood vessels
* Sebum/ Oil Glands (salt, antimicrobial peptides, lysozyme, sebum)
* High turnover: every 6 weeks
* Normal flora
Name the 4 parts of the Dermis
* Collagen Fibers
* Dendritic Cells (Langerhans)
* Sebaceous glands
* Blood vessels
Name the 3 Phagocytic cells discussed in class
* Dendritic Cells
What is the active process of engulfing very large particles or cells?
What is Lysozyme and what does it digest?
The dermis is nutritious for bacteria because it is rich in blood vessels, but why is this also bad for bacteria?
because white blood cells can arrive quickly through the blood stream
Some phagocytic cells use __________ to track the bacteria through our tissues
All Phagocytic white blood cells are ______
What are TLR's and are they innate or adaptive?
innate (born with them)
What is the name for the molecules found on our white blood cells (and some epithelial cells) that bind to PAMPS?
Toll-like Receptors (TLR)
PAMPS are molecules found on pathogens often with wide distribution. What does PAMPS stand for?
Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns
What are Mannans?
TLRs found in yeast cell walls
What is the name of the system of the body that is a Network of fibers and phagocytes found within and between organs?
(system not learned in 224)
All phagocytic cells have 2 things in common. What are they?
*they are all Motile/move
*Active processes (use a lot of ATP)
What is a negative side effect of phagocytosis?
leakage of toxic chemicals, bi-products
What type of membranes line all openings into the body?
Where would you find all of these things?
*Goblet cells (mucus)
How do phagocytes know what to eat?
by what their TLR (Toll-like Receptors) recognize
(they recognize PAMPS, structures found on bacteria, viruses, etc.)
LPS is a TLR found on Gram-________ cells
Lipoteichoic acid is a TLR found on Gram-________ cells
GPI anchors are TLR found on _________
Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a TLR associated with _____ replicating
Name the bacterial enzyme that breaks down Hyaluronic Acid
How do some pathogens become unrecognizable to TLRs?
they mutate or evolve
Where in the lymphatic system will you find a lot of phagocytes?
There are a lot of phagocytes by our ___________ area in our body
What is Bystander damage?
leakage of toxic chemicals
What does Complement mean?
every position filled, all work together to do one job
proenzymes are ________, they must be metabolized into enzymes (activated)
how many different proenzymes are in the Complement system?
Are Complement proteins temperature sensitive?
Some mutations on TLRs, are the cause of __________ disease
The complement activates by binding to Bacterial ________. It inserts itself into the bacterial cell membrane.
binds to bacterial proteins
What does the complement do once it binds to the bacterial protein and inserts itself into the cell membrane?
pokes a hole in bacterial cell membrane, forms rings on bacteria
What does Lectin do?
(found on bacterial surface)
mediate attachment and binding
Once a complement activates by binding to bacterial proteins and poking the hole in cell membrane, it forms the rings by getting other complement proteins from the _____, to do the same thing
What do you call the substance (small proteins) secreted by cells of the immune system that have a specific effect on the interactions and communications between cells?
What substance is released in your body when you're sick that causes your whole body to feel achy and causes everything to be a little more sensitive to pain?
(tells you to lay down and take it easy)
Name the protein we make that interferes with viruses. We make this protein when a cell becomes infected by a virus.
Who secretes the Interferons and who are they for?
The cell infected by the virus secretes the Interferons for neighboring cells
What types of genes do Interferons turn on and which cells will be saved by Interferons?
they turn on anti-viral genes
Interferons save healthy, non-infected cells
What does IFN- alpha and IFN- beta stand for?
two different types of Interferons
Are Interferon's part of adaptive immunity or innate immunity?
Name the 3 proteins that humans make to hide Iron (from bacteria)
Name the Enzyme that Bacteria has that steals Iron (Fe) back from us when we hide it.
Name the 4 things that must occur for something to be classified as inflammation
What causes the feeling of pain during inflammation?
nerve sensitivity due to prostaglandins
What is the actual thing causing the swelling during inflammation?
neutrophils, fluid, blood
What causes the Heat during inflammation?
blood and cell activity
Name the 3 main inflammatory chemicals released when there's damage to tissues
When inflammatory chemicals (molecules) diffuse through tissues, they run into blood vessels. What do these chemicals cause the blood vessels to do?
blood vessels dilate to slow down the blood
What are found in the cells that line the blood vessel that slow down the neutrophils?
What do healthy cells have that notice that a fellow cell has been infected by a virus and started secreting Interferons?
What do the anti-viral proteins released because of Interferons actually do to a virus that may show up?
*degrades nucleic acids of the virus
*blocks virus replication
Translate ' Rubor et tumor cum calore et dolore'
The tiny foreign little shapes that your white blood cells can stick to and recognize are called ________
Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids that we don't have are all antigens.
true or false?
Why does chronic inflammation give you a higher risk of cancer?
because the excessive phagocytic activity produces an excessive amount of toxic by-products being released which can negatively effect healthy surrounding cells
Where are T cells made?
Where do T cells mature?
Where are B cells made?
Where do B cells mature?
Where are APC (antigen-presenting cells) made?
Where do APC's mature?
Mature all over the place
What is the name of the receptor gene found in T cells?
Somatic hypermutation T cell receptor gene
Each T cell that you make in the bone marrow has a different T-cell receptor.
true or false?
What's another name for the T helper cell?