Chapters 6, 5, 8 Flashcards Preview

Microbiology 251 > Chapters 6, 5, 8 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapters 6, 5, 8 Deck (131):
1

What does Growth mean when talking about bacteria cells?

increase in number
(not size)

2

What 3 things are the Cardinal Temperatures of Bacterium?

* Minimum Temperature
* Optimum Temperature
* Maximum Temperature
(temps they can reproduce at)

3

Do freezing temps denature bacteria, if so what does it denature, if not, what do cold temps do to bacteria

freezing bacteria does Not denature bacteria.
Freezing inhibits growth but once they are no longer frozen they begin reproducing again

4

What do you call bacteria that loves the cold temps?

Psychrophiles

5

What is the most common type of bacteria, the type we'd probably get sick from?

Mesophiles

6

Name the bacteria that love hot temps (not extreme hot hot temps)

Thermophiles

7

Name the bacteria that love EXTREMELY HOT HOT temps

Hyperthermophiles

8

What 3 things could very high temperatures denature in bacteria?

*enzymes
* ribosomes
* membranes

9

Around what temperature in F would be considered the "Danger Zone" where rapid growth of bacteria and sometimes production of toxins takes place within food?

between ~60 degrees F and ~120 degrees F

10

Who has more genes, humans or rice?

rice (almost double our gene count)

11

In general, are Hypotonic environments harmful to bacteria?
(Osmotic Pressure)

No

12

What happens to bacteria in a hypertonic solution?

plasmolysis
(shriveling, pulling away from cell wall caused by loss of water through Osmosis)
inhibits bacterial growth

13

Some bacteria can survive high osmotic pressure by increasing the solute concentration of their _________

cytoplasm

14

What is the name of the type of bacteria that can WITHSTAND high osmotic pressure exerted by salt?
(hypertonic)

Halotolerant

15

Name 3 ways we use hypertonic environments to preserve food

* Drying (ex: dried fruit)
* Salting
* Sugaring

16

What do Halophilic bacteria REQUIRE to survive?

high concentrations of salt

17

Bacteria that live at High or Low pH have mechanisms to keep the pH of their cytoplasm around _______

neutral

18

Different bacteria types have different Oxygen requirements.
True or False?

true

19

Where is the highest concentration of oxygen found in a lab tube, at the top or at the bottom?

highest O2 concentration at the top

20

What is the most temperature sensitive part of a bacterial cell? (which will denature first?membrane, enzymes, or ribosomes?)

*enzymes are most temperature sensitive
*then the membrane will melt
* 3rd the ribosomes will denature

21

When you slow the growth of bacteria by lowering temps to freezing but don't kill it, this is called ______ __________

growth inhibition

22

All human pathogens are which type of bacteria (pertaining to reproduction in temperatures)?

Mesophiles

23

What type of bacteria spoil our food?
(remember when you refreeze previously thawed food)

Psychrotrophs

24

How come we can still get sick from food that has gone bad if we cook it at high temps, shouldn't that kill the microbes?

toxins produced by the bacteria are not heat sensitive so they are still in meat after it's cooked

25

Halotolerant orgnisms have pumps that help control the amount of salt and water in their cells.
true or false?

true

26

What is the difference between obligate aerobes and obligate anaerobes?

obligate aerobes: require O2, gather at the top of tube (cannot do anaerobic or fermentation)
obligate anaerobes: are poisoned by O2, so they gather at bottom of tube (can only grow in complete absence of O2 molecules)

27

What are the characteristics of a facultative anaerobe?

can live in the absence or presence of Oxygen

28

Which type of "anaerobes" can do anaerobic, aerobic, and fermentation process depending on the O2 availability and the materials available for fermentation? (they can use O2 if it's present but can also use the other pathways when it's not)

Facultative Anaerobes
(more found toward top of tube but also dispersed throughout)

29

Name the "anaerobe" that can live (but grows poorly) in O2, but is much happier in anaerobic conditions. This "anaerobe" does not use Oxygen for growth, but tolerates it's presence.

Aerotolerant anaerobe
(evenly dispersed throughout tube)

30

What is a Microaerophile?

needs Oxygen for growth (aerobic pathway) but are poisoned by high concentrations of Oxygen

31

Does Oxygen have the ability to be toxic sometimes?

yes

32

Oxygen reacts with other molecules in the cell to produce _____ forms of oxygen. (ex: Hydrogen peroxide, superoxide radical, etc.)

toxic

33

Enzymes are used to ________ active oxygen compounds.
(ex: Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Catalase, etc.)

detoxify

34

What's the main "ingredient" in a bacterial cell?
(don't overthink it)

water

35

What are the 4 "Building blocks of Life"?

*Carbohydrates
*Fats/Lipids
*Proteins
*Nucleic Acids

36

List the main elements used in living cells
(CHONPS, CHNOPS)
(make up 96% of Dry weight of cells)

*Carbon
*Hydrogen
*Oxygen
*Nitrogen *
*Phosphorus *
*Sulfur

(limiting nutrients * )

37

Name 3 limiting Nutrients discussed in class

* Nitrogen *
* Phosphorus *
* Potassium *

38

What is the name given to the elements/minerals found in tap water in pretty large amounts?

Trace elements

39

What do you call something that makes it's own glucose?
What do you call something that takes in glucose from it's environment?

Autotroph= makes it's own glucose
Heterotroph= takes in glucose from environment

40

Give the name of the process of a Chemosynthetic organism that obtains energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds (rocks)
(it is an autotroph)

Chemolithoautotrophic processes

41

Glucose is involved in the synthesis of Nucleotides/Nucleic Acids and also the synthesis of the major protein building blocks, _____ _____

amino acids

42

You need Glucose to do Glycolysis which is an anaerobic process.
true or false

true

43

1. Chromosome divides
2. septum grows between cells
3. the cells separate
what is being described above?

Binary Fission

44

How many Chromosomes does a bacterial cell begin with?

1 chromosome

45

What is the formula for finding the number of bacteria in a population after a given amount of time has elapsed?

(# you start with) x (2^n) = total number of cells in the population after elapsed time
n= number of generations

46

Name and discuss the stages of a simple bacterial growth curve
(4 phases)

1. Lag phase: barely any growth
2. Exponential growth phase (rapid growth, overnight)
3. Stationary Phase (plateau)
4. Death Phase

47

What is a limiting Nutrient?

a nutrient that is in short supply that will be exhausted first which then limits the growth

48

What does a molecule HAVE to have to be considered organic?

Carbon backbone
(and they almost always have C-H bonds)

49

What are almost all inorganic molecules lacking that organic molecules have?

Carbon

50

an acid solution has an excess of which type of ions?

H+ (Hydrogen Ions)

51

A Base (or an alkaline) solution has an excess of which type of ions?

OH- (Hydroxide)

52

If acids are H+ donors, then bases are H+ _________

acceptors

53

Where do prokaryotic cells carry out cellular respiration?

cell membrane

54

What is the word for "movement energy"?

Kinetic Energy

55

What does Nutrient Pollution give to the photosynthetic organisms that causes an overgrowth of them (a bloom) which in turn causes O2 to decrease a lot which then leads to everything living in the lake to die?

Gives them limiting nutrients that they had ran out of prior to

56

What is a Wetland?

a stinky natural filtration system to pull the nutrients out of the water before it reaches the lake so that Nutrient Pollution doesn't kill off the Lake

57

With Bacteria, where does Glycolysis take place?

in the cytoplasm

58

What are the two other names for the Kreb's cycle?

TCA
Citric Acid Cycle

59

With Aerobic respiration, the Electron Donor is Carbon and carbon is _______.
The Terminal Electron Acceptor is Oxygen and Oxygen is _________

Carbon= organic
Oxygen= inorganic

60

What is the name of the type of aerobic respiration that Bacteria do?
(hint: E____ M_______ pathway)

Emden Myerhoff Pathway

61

What spins the turbine that turns ADP into ATP?

Hydrogen Ions

62

With the ETC (Electron Transport Chain) what is the ATP (energy) being used for?

use energy to pump H+ from inside to outside the cell.

63

With Bacteria, in the Emden Myerhoff Pathway, where does the Kreb's Cycle take place? (where is this happening)

In the cytoplasm

64

What is the Hydrogen Ion Gradient also called (with bacteria aerobic resp.)?

Proton motive force

65

What initially goes into the Kreb's Cycle?

2 pyruvate

66

Put these Elements/atoms in order from most electronegative to least
N, Oxygen, Mn, Carbon, Sulfur

Carbon (Most electronegative)
Sulfur
Mn
N
Oxygen (least electronegative)

67

Name the giant protein enzyme that is involved in the process of creating ATP by combining ADP with another phosphate (P)
(pretty obvious)

ATP synthase

68

What do we get from the Glycolysis part of Aerobic Respiration?
(Glucose and NAD+ goes in, what comes out?)

2 Pyruvates
2 NADH
2 ATP

69

2 Pyruvate goes into the Kreb's cycle during aerobic resp. and what comes out?
6 ___
8 ____
2 ___
2 _____

6 CO2
8 NADH
2 ATP
2 FADH2

70

What do NADH and FADH2 represent?
(what are they in this form)

High energy electrons

71

What is NAD+?

a nucleic acid

72

Where does the NAD+ come from?

everything produces it's own NAD+

73

NAD+ and FAD+ steal high energy electrons and shuttle them around.
true or false?

true

74

With Anaerobic respiration in prokaryotes, name the three parts?

Glycolysis (begins with Glucose)
Kreb-like cycle
Electron Transport Chain (ETC)

75

When doing Anaerobic respiration with prokaryotes, instead of Oxygen being at the end of the ETC, what would you find there as the terminal Electron Acceptor?

An Inorganic Molecule (anything other than O2 or Carbon)

(examples: N, S, Mn)

76

Is Fermentation an anaerobic process?

yes

77

There are over 50 different ways to do fermentation for bacteria.
true or false

true

78

Which cells in our bodies often do lactic acid fermentation?

muscle cells

79

With Lactic Acid Fermentation, what enzyme is used to reduce the 2 pyruvates to Lactic Acid?

The 2 NADH that were produced

80

What type of fermentation makes alcohol and bread?

Ethanol fermentation

81

The production of Ethanol and carbon dioxide during ethanol fermentation, are just a side effect of what?

converting sugars (glucose) into cellular energy

82

name the 2 simple steps of fermentation

* glycolysis
* rejuvenation of NAD+

83

Which enzyme is involved in the production of the 2 Ethanol in Ethanol fermentation?

acetaldehyde

84

At what point do we do fermentation in the human body?

Once we've used up everything in aerobic respiration, fermentation supplements to give us more ATP

85

Are temporary mistakes with mRNA considered a mutation?

no

86

What do you call a mistake made on DNA that is an alteration of the base codes and effects everything from there on out?

a mutation

87

What is responsible for making your DNA, Lipids, NAGs, and NAMs?

Proteins enzymes

88

What dictates how a protein will fold?

amino acids
(the specific amino acid sequence of protein)

89

If our lip cell and our nail cell are exactly the same type of cell, what makes them seem so different?
(remember we only have 25,000 genes

Gene Expression

90

What is Gene Expression?

How we use our genes/how we control them
How much transcription and when you do it

91

Why do we seem so much more detailed and complex when compared to an Earth worm when we almost have the exact same number of genes to work with?

Eukaryotes are much more skilled at controlling Gene Expression

92

What are the End products in Lactic Acid Fermentation?

2 molecules of Lactic Acid

93

What are the End products in Ethanol Fermentation?

ethanol
CO2

94

ATP is necessary for all life.
true or false?

true

95

Bacteria can live on a tiny amount of ATP.
true or false?

true

96

Eukaryotes do Aerobic respiration through Mitochondria, where do bacteria do aerobic respiration?

cell membrane

97

Eukaryotes do Anaerobic respiration in the mitochondrial matrix, where do bacteria do anaerobic respiration?

cytoplasm

98

How many ATP can be generated through anaerobic respiration?

32 ATP
( also glucose and HEAT)

99

What makes the copies of the DNA?

mRNA

100

Where do you find Bacterias one chromosome?

in nucleoid

101

What is semi-conservative DNA replication?

the mechanism by which DNA is replicated in all known cells.
It produces 2 copies, each that contain one original strand and one new strand

102

What is DNA Polymerase?

Nucleic Acids responsible for forming new copies of DNA

103

What do you call the genetic makeup of a specific organism? The Genes responsible for a characteristic (This makes traits like eye color, hair color, certain diseases, how your voice sounds, etc). You cannot see these

Genotype
(you cant see it)

104

What do you call the observable expression of the results of genes? (noticing visible characteristics through different senses, sight, sound, etc.)

Phenotype
(you can see it)

105

What type of RNA is used in transcription?
What type of RNA is for translation?

mRNA (transcription)
tRNA (translation)

106

How many different amino acids are there that can be used in the translation process?

20 amino acids

107

Define Codon

the combination of 3 RNA letters
(ex: AAA----------> Lysine

108

What is the difference between RNA letters and DNA letters?

RNA- CGUA
DNA- CGTA

109

Bacteria can do Transcription and translation simultaneously and humans can not.
true or false?

true

110

How does a cell build peptidoglycan? (what two things must it link together)

linking NAMs and NAGs

111

What determines mRNA sequence during transcription?

DNA sequence

112

What determines the amino acid sequence during translation?

mRNA sequence

113

Ribosomes take part in translation by building the amino acids to make the protein.
true or false?

true

114

rRNA becomes part of what?

ribosomes

115

Define RNA Polymerase

enzyme responsible for making RNA from a DNA template during transcription

116

Making transcripts and then translating into Protein is turning a gene __

on

117

turning a gene off involves very very little _______

protein

118

What types of environmental changes could cause a gene to turn off or on?

Osmotic pressure
pH
temperature

119

Chemical signals from other cells can cause genes to turn off or on.
true or false?

true

120

What is genetic recombination?

gain a new genetic material from another

121

How do bacteria acquire new genes?
(2 ways)

Mutation
Genetic recombination

122

What is a mutation?

a change in existing DNA sequence

123

when do spontaneous mutations usually occur?

during replication.

124

Give two examples of mutagens, things that cause mutations

* chemicals
* UV light

125

For humans, forming new organisms and genetic recombination are linked together (sexual reproduction). How is this different for bacteria?

those two things are not linked together.
they do asexual reproduction and occasionally do genetic recombination

126

What type of Gene transmission is occuring when 2 humans have a baby?

Vertical Gene Transmission

127

What type of gene transmission occurs when a bacteria grows a pili, drills a hole in another bacteria and gives over some DNA

horizontal Gene Transmission

128

What do you call the uptake of naked DNA from the environment?

transformation
(closely related organisms do this normally)

129

What is transduction?
(has to do with a virus hijacking a cell)

Viral transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another

130

What is conjugation?

Involves sex Pili, give a fertility gene (F+) over to another living recipient (F-) in the form of plasmid(one strand of plasmid DNA transfers to recipient) or a piece of chromosome

131

What is F Factor in bacteria?

fertility factor allows genes to be transferred from the bacterium carrying the factor to one lacking it