chapter 1 and 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 1 and 4 Deck (85):
1

What is the word for the sugar coat that surrounds the bacteria, it is the outer layer normally made of bound polysaccharides on the cell surface and a superficial layer of unbound proteoglycans and glycoproteins?

glycocalyx

2

a Glycocalyx exists in bacteria as either a _______ or a _____ ______.

capsule
slime layer

3

What shape is a coccus?

round, spherical

4

What shape is bacilli?

rod-shaped

5

What does the shape of a vibrio look like?

a comma

6

What is the difference between Spirilla and Spirochete?

Spirilla are spiral prokaryotes that are short and rigid
Spirochete are spiral prokaryotes that contain longer and more flexible cell walls and move in a spiral motion

7

What main thing is used to build biofilms?

glycocalyx

8

What is the name for a rod-shaped prokaryotic cell?

bacillus

9

What are 3 things the glycocalyx does for bacteria

*enables bacteria to adhere to surfaces
*it protects the bacteria from attack from hosts immune system
*recognition of other cells

10

If a glycocalyx is loosely attached, is it called a capsule or a slime layer?

slime layer

11

What is the human Eukaryotic version of a glycocalyx?

ECM
Extra Cellular Matrix

12

Which is the longer cell surface appendage that is tube-like in structure and is made up of the protein pillin? Pili or Fimbriae?

Pili

13

Which is found in both Gram Negative and Gram Positive bacteria? Fimbriae or Pili?

Fimbriae
(Pili is only found in Gram -)

14

What would a bacteria cell have more of, more Pili or more Fimbriae?

Way more Fimbriae

15

What do you call the Pili involved in cell to cell attachment during bacterial conjugation?

Sex Pili

16

Are Fimbriae and Pili pathogenic mechanisms?

yes

17

What is another name for Fimbriae?

short pili

18

Which are retractable, pili or fimbriae?

pili

19

Where would you find the nucleiod of a bacteria cell?

wherever the chromosome is kept

20

Who disproved spontaneous generation?

Louis Pasteur

21

Who observed "animalcules" from teeth scrapings?

Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek

22

What is Saccharomyces?

a genus in the kingdom of fungi that includes many species of yeast

23

What do you call the Archaea that loves salt?

Halophiles

24

What is the name for a cold loving microbe?

Psychrophiles

25

What is the name for a hot-loving microbe?

Thermophiles

26

What do you call a microbe that loves EXTREMELY hot temps?

hyperthermophiles

27

Name the three Domains

* Domain Archaea
* Domain Bacteria
* Domain Eukarya

28

Which of the three domains deals with prokaryotic organisms?

Domain Archaea and Domain Bacteria

29

What is Taxomy?

The science of naming and classifying organisms

30

what are staphylococci

cocci that divide and form grape-like clusters

31

What is a Tetrad when talking about shapes and identifying?

cocci that remain in a group of 4

32

What do streptobacilli look like?

chains of bacilli (rods connected in a row)

33

What are vibrios?

bacteria that look like curved rods

34

If a Glycocalyx is firmly attached to a cell wall, what is it called?

capsule

35

What is a pleomorphic bacteria?

bacteria that can have many shapes, not just one

36

What do you call the long, filament appendages that propel bacteria?

flagella

37

What is motility?

the ability for an organism to move by itself

38

define taxis?

the movement of a bacterium towards or away from a particular stimulus

39

What is the word for a chemical stimuli for movement?

chemotaxis

40

What type of Pili is used to bing bacteria together for the transfer of DNA?

conjugation pili

41

What is the cell wall responsible for in a bacteria cell?

shape and structure

42

What is the bacterias cell wall primarily composed of?

peptidoglycans

43

Where is the plasma membrane located, inside or outside of the cell wall of bacteria?

inside

44

What do you call lipids attached to carbohydrates?

glycolipids

45

What do you call proteins attached to carbohydrates?

glycoproteins

46

What is the self-healing fluid mosaic model composed of?

phospholipid bilayer and proteins (also some glycoproteins and glycolipids)

47

What structure is found within the phospholipid bilayer of bacterias plasma membrane that acts like the cholesterol of the eukaryotic cell and helps keep the fluidity?

Hopanoid

48

With the prokaryotic cell, what do we call the substance of the cell inside the plasma membrane?

cytoplasm

49

What does a bacterial chromosome look like?

long, single chromosome, double-helix DNA, frequently in a circular shape

50

What is a plasmid?

a small circular, double stranded peice of DNA molecule. Often these are parts of DNA not frequently used by bacteria (like antibiotic resistance)

51

What is the name for the reserve deposits inside of a prokaryotic cell?

inclusions or inclusion bodies

52

The glycocalyx covers the plasma membrane and is made up of a substantial amount of sticky _____________

carbohydrates

53

What is it called when a segment of the plasma membrane surrounds a particle and encloses it and brings it into the cell?

endocytosis

54

What structure in Eukaryotes provides support and shape and assists in transporting substances?

cytoskeleton

55

What is the name given for the fluid portion of the cytoplasm?

cytosol

56

In which type of cell do the ribosomes attach to the surface of the ER and do protein synthesis?

eukaryotic cells

57

Are there any membrane bound organelles in bacteria cells?

no

58

Are there free ribosomes present in eukaryotic cells or only bound?

there are both

59

Which has 70s and which has 80s ribosomes?

70s ribosomes are for bacteria cells
80s ribosomes are found in eukaryotic cells

60

What is the largest structure in a Eukaryotic cell?

Nucleus

61

What do we call the double membrane that surrounds the nucleus?

Nuclear envelope

62

Which type of bacterial cell has a double membrane? Gram + or Gram -?

Gram negative

63

What do we call the space in a bacterial cell that is found between the plasma membrane (phospholipid bilayer) and the cell wall or in a gram negative cell it's found between the cytoplasmic and outermembrane?

periplasmic space

64

define monomorphic?

bacteria that maintain the same shape

65

What are the hairlike appendages found in Gram - bacteria that are shorter, straighter, and thinner than flagella and are used to adhere?

fimbriae/fimbria

66

What type of motility is occurring when a pilus extends, makes contact with surface or cell, then retracts, grappling hook movement?

twitching motility

67

What are bacterial cell walls composed of, consisting of repeating disaccharides connected by polypeptides (amino acids) to form a lattice that surrounds and protects the entire cell?

Peptidoglycan

68

Name the 7 informal groupings of organisms that microbiologists study

* Bacteria
* Archaea
* Fungi
* Protozoa
* Algae
* Animal Parasites
* Viruses

69

Give 2 basic characteristics of Bacteria

1 chromosome
no membrane bound organelles

70

Give 2 basic characteristics of Archaea

can live in extreme climates
look and act like bacteria so were considered "weird" bacteria until the 1970's

71

Give 2 basic characteristics of Fungi

It is also referred to as mold or yeast
It thrives in sugar while bacteria does not

72

Give 2 basic characteristics of a Protozoa

are found in water or live as parasites
unicellular
(amoebas, paramecia, etc.)

73

Give 2 basic characteristics of Algae

unicellular or multicellular
used to be classified as plants

74

Give 2 basic characteristics of Animal Parasites

They live in a host and get nutrients from the host
They can cause harm to their host

75

Give 2 basic characteristics of Viruses

cannot grow or reproduce outside of a host
many can cause disease in host organisms but not all

76

What is Osmotic Pressure?

The pressure required to prevent the movement of pure water into an area with a higher concentration of solutes

77

What is a hypertonic solution?

A medium that has a higher concentration of solutes than that inside the cell

78

Do most bacteria live in hypotonic or hypertonic solutions?

hypotonic

79

What happens when bacteria is placed in a hypertonic solution?

it shrinks and pulls away from cell wall which is called plasmolysis

80

Do viruses have Genes?

yes either DNA or RNA

81

Which is smaller, bacteria or a virus?

virus

82

When discussing bacterial shapes and arrangements, what is another name for sarcinae?

tetrad

83

can Bacilli form a sarcinae/tetrad?

no only cocci

84

Which has a thicker peptidoglycan layer, Gram-Positive or Gram-Negative bacterial cells?

Gram-Positive

85

Which type of bacterial cell, Gram + or Gram -, has lipopolysaccharides attached at the outer membrane?

Gram-Negative