Flashcards in chapter 1 and 4 Deck (85):
What is the word for the sugar coat that surrounds the bacteria, it is the outer layer normally made of bound polysaccharides on the cell surface and a superficial layer of unbound proteoglycans and glycoproteins?
a Glycocalyx exists in bacteria as either a _______ or a _____ ______.
What shape is a coccus?
What shape is bacilli?
What does the shape of a vibrio look like?
What is the difference between Spirilla and Spirochete?
Spirilla are spiral prokaryotes that are short and rigid
Spirochete are spiral prokaryotes that contain longer and more flexible cell walls and move in a spiral motion
What main thing is used to build biofilms?
What is the name for a rod-shaped prokaryotic cell?
What are 3 things the glycocalyx does for bacteria
*enables bacteria to adhere to surfaces
*it protects the bacteria from attack from hosts immune system
*recognition of other cells
If a glycocalyx is loosely attached, is it called a capsule or a slime layer?
What is the human Eukaryotic version of a glycocalyx?
Extra Cellular Matrix
Which is the longer cell surface appendage that is tube-like in structure and is made up of the protein pillin? Pili or Fimbriae?
Which is found in both Gram Negative and Gram Positive bacteria? Fimbriae or Pili?
(Pili is only found in Gram -)
What would a bacteria cell have more of, more Pili or more Fimbriae?
Way more Fimbriae
What do you call the Pili involved in cell to cell attachment during bacterial conjugation?
Are Fimbriae and Pili pathogenic mechanisms?
What is another name for Fimbriae?
Which are retractable, pili or fimbriae?
Where would you find the nucleiod of a bacteria cell?
wherever the chromosome is kept
Who disproved spontaneous generation?
Who observed "animalcules" from teeth scrapings?
Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek
What is Saccharomyces?
a genus in the kingdom of fungi that includes many species of yeast
What do you call the Archaea that loves salt?
What is the name for a cold loving microbe?
What is the name for a hot-loving microbe?
What do you call a microbe that loves EXTREMELY hot temps?
Name the three Domains
* Domain Archaea
* Domain Bacteria
* Domain Eukarya
Which of the three domains deals with prokaryotic organisms?
Domain Archaea and Domain Bacteria
What is Taxomy?
The science of naming and classifying organisms
what are staphylococci
cocci that divide and form grape-like clusters
What is a Tetrad when talking about shapes and identifying?
cocci that remain in a group of 4
What do streptobacilli look like?
chains of bacilli (rods connected in a row)
What are vibrios?
bacteria that look like curved rods
If a Glycocalyx is firmly attached to a cell wall, what is it called?
What is a pleomorphic bacteria?
bacteria that can have many shapes, not just one
What do you call the long, filament appendages that propel bacteria?
What is motility?
the ability for an organism to move by itself
the movement of a bacterium towards or away from a particular stimulus
What is the word for a chemical stimuli for movement?
What type of Pili is used to bing bacteria together for the transfer of DNA?
What is the cell wall responsible for in a bacteria cell?
shape and structure
What is the bacterias cell wall primarily composed of?
Where is the plasma membrane located, inside or outside of the cell wall of bacteria?
What do you call lipids attached to carbohydrates?
What do you call proteins attached to carbohydrates?
What is the self-healing fluid mosaic model composed of?
phospholipid bilayer and proteins (also some glycoproteins and glycolipids)
What structure is found within the phospholipid bilayer of bacterias plasma membrane that acts like the cholesterol of the eukaryotic cell and helps keep the fluidity?
With the prokaryotic cell, what do we call the substance of the cell inside the plasma membrane?
What does a bacterial chromosome look like?
long, single chromosome, double-helix DNA, frequently in a circular shape
What is a plasmid?
a small circular, double stranded peice of DNA molecule. Often these are parts of DNA not frequently used by bacteria (like antibiotic resistance)
What is the name for the reserve deposits inside of a prokaryotic cell?
inclusions or inclusion bodies
The glycocalyx covers the plasma membrane and is made up of a substantial amount of sticky _____________
What is it called when a segment of the plasma membrane surrounds a particle and encloses it and brings it into the cell?
What structure in Eukaryotes provides support and shape and assists in transporting substances?
What is the name given for the fluid portion of the cytoplasm?
In which type of cell do the ribosomes attach to the surface of the ER and do protein synthesis?
Are there any membrane bound organelles in bacteria cells?
Are there free ribosomes present in eukaryotic cells or only bound?
there are both
Which has 70s and which has 80s ribosomes?
70s ribosomes are for bacteria cells
80s ribosomes are found in eukaryotic cells
What is the largest structure in a Eukaryotic cell?
What do we call the double membrane that surrounds the nucleus?
Which type of bacterial cell has a double membrane? Gram + or Gram -?
What do we call the space in a bacterial cell that is found between the plasma membrane (phospholipid bilayer) and the cell wall or in a gram negative cell it's found between the cytoplasmic and outermembrane?
bacteria that maintain the same shape
What are the hairlike appendages found in Gram - bacteria that are shorter, straighter, and thinner than flagella and are used to adhere?
What type of motility is occurring when a pilus extends, makes contact with surface or cell, then retracts, grappling hook movement?
What are bacterial cell walls composed of, consisting of repeating disaccharides connected by polypeptides (amino acids) to form a lattice that surrounds and protects the entire cell?
Name the 7 informal groupings of organisms that microbiologists study
* Animal Parasites
Give 2 basic characteristics of Bacteria
no membrane bound organelles
Give 2 basic characteristics of Archaea
can live in extreme climates
look and act like bacteria so were considered "weird" bacteria until the 1970's
Give 2 basic characteristics of Fungi
It is also referred to as mold or yeast
It thrives in sugar while bacteria does not
Give 2 basic characteristics of a Protozoa
are found in water or live as parasites
(amoebas, paramecia, etc.)
Give 2 basic characteristics of Algae
unicellular or multicellular
used to be classified as plants
Give 2 basic characteristics of Animal Parasites
They live in a host and get nutrients from the host
They can cause harm to their host
Give 2 basic characteristics of Viruses
cannot grow or reproduce outside of a host
many can cause disease in host organisms but not all
What is Osmotic Pressure?
The pressure required to prevent the movement of pure water into an area with a higher concentration of solutes
What is a hypertonic solution?
A medium that has a higher concentration of solutes than that inside the cell
Do most bacteria live in hypotonic or hypertonic solutions?
What happens when bacteria is placed in a hypertonic solution?
it shrinks and pulls away from cell wall which is called plasmolysis
Do viruses have Genes?
yes either DNA or RNA
Which is smaller, bacteria or a virus?
When discussing bacterial shapes and arrangements, what is another name for sarcinae?
can Bacilli form a sarcinae/tetrad?
no only cocci
Which has a thicker peptidoglycan layer, Gram-Positive or Gram-Negative bacterial cells?