Flashcards in Chapter 17 Adaptive Immunity Deck (50):
Foreign pieces or shapes that your immune system 'sees' or responds to are called ________.
Who does the APC (antigen presenting cell) present the antigen to?
(looking for the correct T-Helper cell )
Name the 3 cells that are the APC's
* Dendritic Cells
All of the APC's have a molecule on their surface called _____
What is MALT, also known as Peyer's Patch, and where is it located?
Mucous-associated lymphatic tissue
Found underneath the lining of the mucous membrane
Name the 2 primary immune organs
* Bone Marrow
Every T-cell we make is unique.
true or false?
List the 4 secondary immune organs
* Lymph nodes
* MALT (peyer's patch)
Name the two types of T-cells
T helper (CD4)
Which type of T-cells get activated by the Cell-mediated Pathway?
T-cytotoxic cells (CD8)
Which Pathway, Cell-mediated or Humoral, is best for intracellular?
Which Pathway, Cell-mediated or Humoral, is best for extracellular?
What type of cells does the Humoral Pathway activate?
What do these cells produce?
Which cells have MHC I and display it when something is going on inside of the cell?
all nucleated cells ( except for RBC's)
Which arm (pathway) of the immune system will go into action when there is something going on inside of the cell like a virus is inside?
T-Helper secretes a special blend of _________ and they will be recognized by it's match T-cytotoxic cell (it will recognize the specific blend)
Once the T-cytotoxic cells activate (by T helper finding it's match), the activated T cytotoxic cell begins to multiply and build a T cytotoxic cell army. This is known as what?
Which is the Humoral arm, extracellular or intracellular?
Does the T cytotoxic "army" (clonal expansion) leave the lymph node or stay in the lymph node?
leave the lymph node
When the cell-mediated (intrcellular) arm and/or the humoral (extracellular) arm starts the first step in immune defense, where is this taking place up until the clonal expression occurs?
in the Lymph Nodes
What does the special blend of cytokines secreted by the T Helper cell do for it?
helps it find it's perfect match
Once the T cytotoxic army is released during cell-mediated defense, what do they do?
try and find their "match" which is the infected cell displaying MHC I
Once the T cytotoxic army cell finds it's match (the infected cell displaying MHC I, what does it release and what happens?
it snuggles up with infected cell, then releases cytokines that tell the infected cell to kill itself (apoptosis)
For first exposure to an invader/pathogen, how long does it take for our cell-mediated defense to build up it's T cytotoxic army?
How long does it take for memory cells involved in cell-mediated defense to build their army during their 2nd exposure?
What happens if a T cytotoxic cell (from army) still can't find it's match?
it kills itself
Are some viruses capable of stopping the MHC I from presenting itself on an infected cell?
Both Cell-mediated defense and Humoral defense start out the same way, with a T Helper cell. but with Cell-mediated, the T helper goes looking for a T cytotoxic cell match and wants to activate it and with Humoral, the T Helper is trying to find a _-____
With cell-mediated, what does the T Helper cell do to find it's T cytotoxic match?
secretes cytokines, a chemical signal
(secretes and then waits for a match, more passive approach)
With Humoral defense, what does the T Helper cell do to find it's B-cell match?
physically touch B-cells to see if they're a match
(must go out and actively look)
Give another name for an activated T cytotoxic cell
Other than physically touching, what other thing is needed to activate a B-cell?
B-cell blend of cytokines from T-Helper cell
What do activated B-cells produce and shed?
What is the name given for an activated B-cell?
What do the antibodies that B-cells shed do to bacteria?
Once the Plasma cells (activated B cells) are done doing their job, what happens?
they kill themselves (apoptosis)
a few stay behind and become memory cells that continue making little antibodies
During Humoral Defense, how long after first exposure does it take to build the Plasma cell army (clonal expansion)?
7-10 days (to make antibodies)
During Humoral Defense, how long after 2nd exposure, does clonal expansion (building the activated B-cell army) take?
Are the memory cells that are created by receiving vaccines, just as effective as the memory cells you create by being exposed to actual pathogens?
there are way less created
IFN, TNF, IL-2, IL-4, are all signaling molecules of immune cells better known as _________
What happens to T cytotoxic cells once they have cleared out all of the infected cells?
most kill themselves but some are left to become memory T cells
What does Humoral immunity begin with?
antigen presentation to T-Helper cells
What is the first step in cell-mediated immunity involving APC?
APC (antigen presenting cell) presents antigen to many T-Helper cell receptors (until correct TH match is found)
Every T cell we make is unique and all of their t cell receptors are unique/different as well.
true or false?
All 100,000 B-cell receptors on the surface of an individual B-cell are all identical.
true or false?
an immune process where particles such as bacteria are targeted for destruction by a phagocyte
(identifying the invading particle to the phagocyte)
What is Trim21?
a cytoplasmic protein
What cytoplasmic protein, binds to Ab/Virus within the cell, and targets it for proteosome?
What types of cells have proteasome (proteosomes) found in?
What is the main function of proteasome?
*found in all Eukaryotic (located in nucleus and cytoplasm), Archaic, and some bacteria
* degrades unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis
What is proteolysis?
a chemical process that breaks down peptide bonds