chapter 20, 14, and diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 20, 14, and diseases Deck (118):
1

Define Drug

any chemical that can affect human physiology in any way

2

Define Chemotherapy/chemotherapeutic agent

drug used to treat disease

3

Define Anti-microbial drug/agent or anti-microbial chemotherapy

chemotherapeutic agent used to treat infectious disease

4

What is an antibiotic?

an anti-microbial agent used to treat bacterial infections, that is produced by another organism

5

Give the 4 different classes of anti-microbials

* Anti-bacterial drugs
* Anti-viral drugs
* Anti-fungal drugs
* Anti-protozoal and Anti-helminthic

6

What is a semi-synthetic antibiotic?

An antibiotic that's been altered. Part from nature, part made in lab
( a modified antibiotic )

7

What is a synthetic antibiotic?

An anti-bacterial drug that is synthesized entirely in a lab
(an antimicrobial that has synthetic structure)

8

Anti-microbial drugs are chemicals that are intended to have selective toxicity against microbes. Antibiotics are one of these.
What is selective toxicity?

they kill microbial cells but not the host cell

9

What are broad spectrum antibiotics?

active against most bacteria. Used when they aren't quite sure what's wrong

10

Define Narrow Spectrum Antibiotics

they are much more specific than broad spectrum. active against some bacteria, usually gram + or -

11

High toxicity in microorganisms and low toxicity in humans= good ___________ _____

therapeutic index

12

Define Therapeutic index and tell whether a high or large number is good or bad

the ratio of the toxic dose to the therapeutic dose.
high therapeutic index = less toxic to the patient

13

Antimicrobials that have a high therapeutic index are less toxic to the patient.
true or false?

true

14

What 2 things are the sources for most of our common Antibiotics and semi-synthetics?

*Fungi
** Bacteria

15

Which bacteria do 50% of our antibiotics come from?

Streptomyces spp.

16

Describe process of making antibiotics
3 steps

* grow organism in proper conditions
* siphon off liquid extract antibiotic and purify
* make changes in lab if necessary

17

Define drug pipeline

a set of drug candidates that a pharm. company has under discovery or development and is testing at any given point.

18

What are they testing for in clinical trials?

I. Safe?
II. Effective?
III. Relative Effectiveness

19

List the different ways that Anti-bacterial drugs have selective toxicity. Explain what they target in bacteria to weaken/inhibit or kill it

* Inhibit cell wall synthesis
* Inhibit protein synthesis
* Inhibit Nucleic Acid replication & transcription
* Injury to plasma membrane
* Inhibit essential metabolite synthesis (effecting enzyme)

20

Give 3 examples of Anti-bacterial drugs

* Penicillin
* Vancomycin
* Streptomycin

21

Give examples of Cell wall inhibitors

*Penicillin
*Vancomycin ( polypeptides )
* antimycobacterium inhibit as well

22

tell us a little about penicillin. What is the natural form called?

* Penicillin G : natural
* people are allergic to it
* it comes from fungi
* natural penicillin is gram +

23

What enzyme do some people have that makes it so that penicillin is not an effective drug for them?

Penicillinase

24

Name a few protein synthesis inhibitors (anti-bacterial drugs)

Tetracyclins
Aminoglycosides

25

What do we call the nutrients taken to feed normal flora?
(generally fibers that humans cannot digest)

Pre-biotics

26

What are probiotics?

bacteria taken to replenish normal flora lost during antibiotic treatment

27

Are there many anti-fungals out there?

no, not many

28

Are anti-fungals natural and synthetics?

yes

29

Are anti-fungals normally narrow spec or broad spec?

broad spec

30

What types of selective toxicity do antivirals have?

* Fushion inhibitors
* Nucleic Acid inhibitors
* Assembly Inhibitors
* Exit inhibitors

31

Give two facts about antiviral drugs

* Extremely narrow spectrum (1 type of virus)
* Synthetic

32

Give two facts about antiprotozoan/ antihelminthic drugs

* very few
* Natural and synthetic

33

What does antibiotic resistance, initiation and spread have to do with?

mutations

34

Which category of mechanism or mutation does Penicillinase do, and explain how?

Drug Inactivation
Penicillinase is an enzyme that changes a portion of the penicillin (molecule) and renders it inactive

35

List all 5 mechanisms or mutations which make microorganisms resistant to a drug

* Drug Inactivation
* Decreased Permeability
* Activation of Drug Pumps
* Change in drug binding site
* Alternate metabolic pathway

36

What happens with Decreased Permeability?

The receptor that transports the drug is altered so that the drug cannot enter the cell

37

What occurs with the Activation of drug pumps as a mechanism?

Specialized membrane proteins are activated and continually pump the drug out of the cell

38

What happens when there's a change in drug binding site?

The binding site on the target (ribosome), is altered, so the drug has no effect

39

What happens with the use of an alternate metabolic pathway?

When the drug has blocked the usual metabolic pathway, so the microbe circumvents (gets around) it by using an alternate, unblocked pathway (route) that achieves the required outcome.

40

Define transformation

the genetic alteration of a cell as a result of the cell picking up (through cell membrane) and using DNA that's freely floating around

41

Define Transduction

a process of genetic recombination in bacteria in which genes from a host cell (bacterium), are incorporated into the genome of a bacterial virus (bacteriophage) and then carried to another host cell when the bacteriophage initiates another cycle of infection

42

define process of conjugation

One bacteria is the donor and one is the recipient. The donor bacteria carries a DNA sequence called fertility factor (F-Factor). the F-Factor allows the donor to create a pilus that connects the two bacteria. Donor bacteria transfers genetic material to recipient bacteria, usually in the form of a plasmid. The genetic material transferred during conjugation typically provides the recipient Bacteria with a genetic advantage. In many cases conjugation serves to transfer plasmids that carry antibiotic resistance genes

43

What 4 ways do mutations spread?

Transformation
Transduction
Conjugation

then Binary Fission!

44

How can we slow the spread of antibiotic resistance within the bacterial population?

* limit use of same antibiotic over and over again
(rotate drugs)
* Agricultural
(ex: stop using antibiotics to fatten livestock)
* Appropriate dosing
* Drug Combinations
* new variations of drugs

45

Has the overuse of Antibiotics in animal agriculture, led to antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria?

Yes.
The risk of resistance rises each time bacteria are exposed to antimicrobials

46

It is estimated that over one half of the antibiotics in the US are used in food animal production.
true or false?

true

47

Name the 5 general ways normal flora acquired?

* Birth
* breathing
* Touch
* Liquids
* Solid food

48

What part of the human body is " topographically outside of the body, so to speak" ?

the Gastrointestinal Tract (GI Tract)

49

Name all the places that you can harbor a normal flora
(8 different areas)

* skin/ mucous membranes
* Upper Respiratory tract
* GI tract (various places)
* Outer opening of urethra
* External Genitalia
* Vagina
* External ear and Canal
* External eye (lids/lash follicles

50

What Anatomical Sites and Fluids should be sterile (Microbe-Free)
(give broad answers)

All Internal Tissues and Organs
Fluids within an Organ or Tissue

51

List some of the Internal Tissues and Organs that should be Microbe-Free (sterile)

* Heart/ CV system
* Liver
* Lungs
* Brain/Spinal cord
* Kidneys/bladder
* Bones/ Muscles

52

List some of the fluids found within an Organ or tissue that should be Microbe-free (sterile)

* Blood
* Urine in kidneys, ureters, bladder
* CSF
* Semen prior to entering urethra
* Saliva prior to entering oral cavity
* Amniotic fluid surrounding the embryo and fetus

53

Name three broad groups of bacteria that are found in humans

* Normal flora : Microorganisms that have a mutual relationship with the human host

* Pathogens: microorganisms that cause disease in a healthy person

* Opportunistic Pathogens : Normal flora that can cause disease under specific circumstances

54

Define Infection

Any microorganism replicating in tissues of the body

55

When does something considered a Disease?

* Disruption of normal body processes
* Collection of signs and symptoms

56

What do we call a disease that is caused by microorganisms?

Infectious disease

57

HIV is the infection that leads to AIDS which is the _______

disease

58

What is a Primary Infection?

Original Pathogen

59

What is a Secondary Infection?

A second pathogen that gains entry because of the first Pathogen

60

If chicken pox is the primary Infection and the child scratches so hard it breaks the skin and S. aureus gets in and causes an infection, what is S. aureus considered?

Secondary Infection

61

Define Infectious Dose

the quantity of a pathogen (measured in number of organsims) required to cause an infection in the host.
(different for different pathogens)

62

What is the Infectious dose of Measles Virus?

1
(that's why its so scary)

63

Which can be seen or measured by an outside observer, signs or symptoms?

signs

64

What are symptoms?

things felt by the patient that cannot be measured by an outsider.
subjective

65

Out of malaise, increase in WBC count, and a fever, which are signs and which are symptoms?

Malaise: Symptom
WBC Count: Sign
Fever: Sign

66

What would be examples of non-living reservoirs?

Soil and water

67

What is the word for when a disease is transmitted from animal to human?

Zoonoses

68

Name the 3 types of Reservoirs

* Human Reservoirs
* Animal Reservoirs
* Non-living Reservoirs

69

Define Reservoir

Habitat of the pathogen in the natural world

70

Define endemic

Infectious disease predictable, stable transmission (each year)
around the same amount of people getting sick or dying

71

Define Sporadic

Infectious disease number is low, so sporadic it can't be predicted how/when it'll occur

72

Anytime a new pathogen jumps into the human species, the number was clearly non-existent before and now there is a number of cases, so what would this be considered?

Epidemic

73

What is an Epidemic?

More than the expected amount of cases

74

When is something a Pandemic?

When there is more than the expected amount on more than one continent

75

How do you calculate Morbidity Rate?

# of new cases during a specific time
--------------------------------------------------------
# of individuals in population

76

How do you calculate Mortality Rate?

# of deaths due to given disease
-----------------------------------------------------------
size of total population with the disease

77

What does it mean if Morbidity rate is 10%?

1/10 of people will get it
(of total population)

78

What does it mean if Mortality rate is 10%?

1/10 of the people who get the disease will die from it

79

What does it mean if you are a "carrier" ?

You have the infection and/or disease but you are asymptomatic.
(don't have any symptoms from it but can still spread it)

80

define Zoonosis

disease caused by a pathogen with an animal reservoir

81

what is a Communicable disease?

Transmissable to others

82

What is a Contagious Disease?

EASILY transmissable from one person to another

83

What is a Noncommunicable disease?

Not transmissable from one person to another

84

What is the surface called involved in indirect contact transmission?

fomite

85

What is direct contact transmission?

you must touch, person to person

86

What is droplet transmission?
Is it considered Airborne?

*transmission via droplets, less than 1 meter
*not considered airborne

87

Waterborne, foodborne, and airborne are what type of transmission. define?

Vehicle Transmission
transmission by an inanimate reservoir

88

Define Vector transmission

animals/insects/spiders that transmit organisms

89

define biological vector

when the insect/animal has the disease and then drinks your blood or bites you and transmits it

90

define mechanical vector

when the insect steps in organism and then lands on you or your food, you eat your food and get sick, he's a mechanical vector

91

What portion of an antigen do antibodies see?

Fc portion
(not the Y)

92

Can Staph aureus do transformation (pick up naked DNA)?

Yes

93

What is Protein A?

a surface protein found in cell wall of staph. aureus
that can bind the Fc region of an antibody
Protein A covers itself with antibodies

94

Which two enzymes can most staph aureus make?

Coagulase
Staphylokinase
it can build a blood clot up around itself to protect it and then dissolve it once it feels safe

95

What are virulence factors?

Toxins

96

s. aureus is notorious for gaining antibiotic resistance and is known as a tissue _________

destroyer

97

What is Panton-Valentine Leukocidin?

enzyme that kills neutrophils

98

What toxin is known to chop up desmosomes?

Exfoliative toxin

99

How many different enterotoxins are there?
what do enterotoxins induce?
(hint: entero tube down you)

5 (A,B,C,D,E)
Diarrhea and vomitting

100

What is the resistant form of staph aureus found in hospitals?

MRSA
(50% of Nosocomial infections are MRSA)

101

what % of US population are carriers of staph aureus ?

33%

102

Most common way staph aureus is spread?

contact transmission (direct/indirect)

103

Best antibiotics against Staph Aureus?

"cillins" but not original Penicillin
BEST Methicillin and Oxacillin (only 2% resist)
90% of staph produce penicillinase

104

What do you treat MRSA with?

Vancomycin
Linezolid

105

Which pH is staph aureus sensitive to?
what temp does it like (thermo, meso, psychro?)

sensitive to acid
mesophile

106

What makes us sick when we cook our food at high temps to kill staph aureus and other things?

toxins
they are heat stable

107

Half the strains of staph make enterotoxins. What 2 things are enterotoxins stable in that help them easily make us sick through food?

acid stable and heat stable

108

What's the difference between Pyrogenic and Pyogenic and which one is staph. aureus?

pyrogenic: fever
pyogenic: pus staph. aureus is pyogenic

109

List the skin issues associated with staph. aureus

*impetigo : blisters/patches/pus/scab
* folliculitis : like a zit but surrounding area inflamed, staph aureus stuck inside
* Boil-furuncle : folliculitis that gets worse. hair follice gets plugged and infection spreads
*Carbuncle: a boil that continues to get worse, huge, or multiples coming together. when your boil starts making you feel sick and you can feel cytokines

110

define systemic infection

bacteria widespread through body

111

define bacteremia

infection, bacteria in bloodstream

112

define pneumonia

bacterial infection causing immune response in your lungs. fluid build up in lung sacs

113

bacteria growing====>immune activation===>cytokine production=====> ______

sepsis

114

What causes sepsis?

cytokines from many infections
you vasodilation all over to get WBC out
blood pressure very low
heart rate high

115

How does sepsis turn into septic shock?

your organs start shutting down from low BP
BP becomes refractory to treatment meaning it is too low and wont respond to drugs anymore

116

mortality rate for septic shock?

50/50

117

define toxic shock syndrome

all signs of sepsis but progressed very quickly to septic shock

118

what make toxic shock syndrome progress so quickly

staph aureus turn on gene TSST-1 giving it superantigens which cause every TH to think its a match and then a cytokine storm occurs. no stopping it