Flashcards in Chapter 16 Test Deck (120):
What earthquake in January 2010 not only devastated an already-impoverished country but also reawakened issues deriving from that country's revolution against slavery and Frech colonial rule, which finally succeded in 1804?
The Haitian Earthquake
Twenty-one years later, what did the French government demand from Haiti?
a payment of 150 million gold francs in compensation for the loss of its richest colony and its "property" in slaves
To repay the French government, what did Haiti do?
Took out major loans from French, German, and North American banks, and repaying those loans was finallly completed in 1947, which drained 80 percent of Haiti's governemnt revenue in 1915.
Writing in 1772, what did the French intellectual Voltaire ask?
My dear philosopher, doesn't this appear to you to be the century of revolutions?
In southern Africa a series of wars and migrations known as what?
mfecane(the breaking or crushing) involved widespread and violent disruptions as well as the creation of new states and societies
In the Seven Years' War, Britan and France joined battle in North America, the Caribbean, West Africa, and South Asia, what did the expenses of these battles prompt?
it prompted the British to levy additional taxes on their North American colonies and the French monarchy to seek new revenue from its landowners
What American revolutionary leader was the U.S. ambassador to France on the eve of the French Revolution, while there what did he do?
Thomas Jefferson; while there he provided advice and encouragement to French reformers and revolutionaries
Who was a leading figure in Spanish American struggles for independence, twice visited Haiti, where he received military aid from the first black government in the Americas?
How were the ideas that animated the Atlantic revolutions derived from the European Enlightenment shared across the ocean?
newspapers, books, and pamphlets
Politically, what was the core notion behind the revolutions?
popular sovereignty, which meant that the authority to govern derived from the people rather than from God or from established tradition
What idea did popular sovereignty oppose?
the divine right of kings
What was another term for popular sovereignty?
What englishman argued the "social contract" between ruler and ruled should last only as long as it served the people well?
The Atlantic movements for a shift in power have often been referred to as what?
What was adopted by the United Nations in 1948, that echoed and amplified these new principles while providing the basis for any number of subsequent protests against oppression, tyranny and deprivation?
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
What advantages did England provide for its colonies in the Americas?
protection in war, access to British markets, and confirmation of the settlers' continuing identity as "Englishmen"
Class distinctions were real and visible in the Americas and a small class of wealthy "gentlemen"- ____ _____ ____ _____ - wore powdered wigs, imitated the latest European styles, were in political life, and generally accorded deference by ordinary people.
the Adamses, Washingtons, Jeffersons, and Hancocks
Who was the famous economist who observed that British colonists were "republican in their manners...and their government" well before their independence from England?
What did British authorities, in the 1760s begin to do?
Britain began to act like a genuine imperial power, imposing a variety of new taxes and tariffs on the colonies without their consent, for they were not represented in the British Parliament
What were the colonists in the Americas of Britan armed with the ideas of?
of the Enlightenment - popular sovereignty, natural rights, the consent of the governed - they went to war, and prevailed by 1781, with aid from the French
Who later gave voice to this conservative understanding of the American Revolution: "All contracts and rights, respecting property, remained unchanged by the Revolution."
Chief Justice John Marshall
In the century after their revolution, the United States did become the world's most democratic country, but this development was because of what?
the gradual working out in a reformist fashion of earlier practices and the principles of equality announced in the Declaration of Independence
James Madison in what made the point clearly: "We pursued a new and more noble course...and accomplished a revolution that has 'no parallel' in the annals of human society?"
On the eve of the French Revolution, what did a Paris newspaper proclaim that the United States was?
the hope and model of the human race - referring to the political ideas and practice of the new country
What was proclaimed in the Declaration of INdependence and made effective only in a great struggle, inspired revolutionaries and nationalists from Simon Bolivar to Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam?
right to revolution
What were the first sustained efforts to put the political ideas of the Enlightenment into practice in the Americas?
The new U.S. Constitution - with its Bill of Rights, checks and balances, separation of church and state, and federalism
When did the French revolution begin?
What did Thomas Jefferson, the U.S. ambassador in Paris, report in France?
they have "been awakened by our revolution."
In a desperate effort to raise taxes against the opposition of the privileged class, the French king, Louis XVI, had called into session an ancient representative body known as what?
the Estates General
What did the Estates General consist of?
of male representatives of the three "estates," or legal orders, of prerevolutionary France: the clergy, the nobility, and the commoners
How much of the French population was comprised within the clergy and the nobility?
2 percent, with the 98% involving everyone else putting them into the commoners category
In 1789, representatives of the Third Estate (commoners), soon organized themselves into what?
the National Assembly, claiming the sole authority to make laws for the country
Where did the Third Estate meet to set up the National Assembly?
in a tennis court (tennis court oath)
What did the Third Estate write up?
the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, which forthrightly declared that "men are born and remain free and equal in rights."
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen were unprecedented and illegal in what?
in the "ancien regime" (the old regime), launched the French Revolution and radicalized many of the participants in the National Assembly
How were the French Revolution and the American Revolution different?
The American Revolution expressed the tensions of a colonial relationship with a distant imperial power, while the Fench was driven by sharp conflicts within French society
members of the titled nobility enjoyed what?
privilege, prestige, and wealth
Ordinary urban men and women, many of whose incomes had declined for a generation, where hit particularly hard in the late 1780s by the rapidly rising price of what and widespread unemployment?
Peasants in the countryside, though largely free of serfdom, were subject to hated dues imposed by their landlords, taxes from the state, obligations to the Church, and the requirement to work without pay on public roads known as what?
What famous French writer told them that it was "manifestly contrary to the law of nature...that a handful of people should gorge themsevles with superfluities while the hungry multitude goes in want of necessities."
In 1793 who were executed, an act of regicide that shocked traditionalists all across Europe and marked a new state in revolutionary violence?
King Louis XVI and his queen, Marie Antoinette
What followed the execution of King Louis XVI?
the Terror of 1793-1794
Under whose leadership and his Committee of Public Safety, tens of thousands deemed enemies of the revolution lost their lives on the guillotine and who was later arrested and guillotined?
To get rid of the old order were symbolized by what which marked a fresh start for France?
a new calendar with the Year 1 in 1792
What demands did women also detail in their petition?
Lack of education, male competition in female trades, the prevalence of prostitution, the rapidly rising price of bread and soap
One petition, reflecting the intersection of class and gender referred to women as what?
Third Estate of the Third Estate
What small women's group campaigned for women's rights noting that "the laws favor men at the expense of women, because everywhere power is in your hands?"
the Cercle Social (Social Circle)
What French playwright and journalist appropriated the language of the Declaration of Rights to insist that "woman is born free and lives equal to man in her rights?"
Olympe de Gouges
Women who aspired to exercise political power were called what?
denatured viragos (dominating women)
What was held in 1793 to mark the first anniversary of the end of monarchy, participants burned the crowns and scepters of the royal family in huge bonfire while releasing a cloud of 3,000 white doves?
a Festival of Unity
The Cathedral of Notre Dame was temporarily turned into what, while the "Hymn to Liberty" combined the traditional church music with explicit message of the Englightenment?
Temple of Reason
What Island was Napoleon left on after the Battle of Nations?
French influence spread through conquest, largely under the leadership of what person, who is often credited with taming the revolution in the face of growing disenchantment with its more radical features and with the social conflicts it generated?
What did Napoleon Bonaparte preserve of earlier France?
civil equality, a secular law code, religious freedom, and promotion by merit
What brought the end of Napoleon and his amazing empire by 1815 and marked the end to the era of the French Revolution, though not its ideas?
National resistance, particularly from Russia and Britain
Where did the French Revolution echo more loudly?
French Caribbean colony of Saint Domingue, later renamed Haiti
Regarded as the richest colony in the world, what did Saint Domingue have?
8,000 plantations, produced some 40 percent of the world's sugar and perhaps half of its coffee
What is the population comprised of?
500,000 slaves making up most of the population, 40,000 whites, and 30,000 free people of color
Whites in Saint Domingue numbered 40,000, divided between plantation owners, merchants, and lawyers, known as what?
petits blancs or poor whites
What was the third social group in Saint Domingue known as that had some 30,000 people, many of which were mixed-race?
gens de couleur libres (free people of color)
What were the rich white landowners in Saint Domingue known as?
Who were the slaves in Saint Domingue in 1790s led by?
by the astute Toussaint Louverture, a former slave
What did the free slaves of Saint Domingue rename their country?
Haiti, a term meaning "mountainous" or "rugged" in the langue of the original Taino people
At the formal declaration of Haiti's independence on January 1, 1804, who was the new country's first head of state, that declared: "I have given the French cannibals blood for blood; I have avenged America"
In 1808, who invaded Spain and Portugal, disposing the Spanish king Ferdinand VII and forcing the Portuguese royal family into exile in Brazil?
In Mexico, the move toward independence began in 1810 in a peasant insurrection, driven by hunger for land and by high food prices and was led by who?
by two priests, Miguel Hidalgo and Jose Morelos
Both regional military leaders such as Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin required what?
the support of the "people," or at least some of them to prevail against Spanish forces
All people born in the Americas -creoles, Indians, mixed-race people, free blacks were cast into what?
cast as Americanos, while the enemy was defined as those born in Spain or Portugal
IN Mexico, some women disguised themselves as men to join the struggle, while numerous working-class and peasant women served as cooks and carriers of supples in what?
a "women's brigatde."
Who accorded national recognition to a number of women, and modest improvement in educational opportunities for women appeared?
General Sain Martin of Argentina
After what person's death in 1830, did George Washington write, "[Latin] America is ungovernable. Those who serve the revolution plough the sea."
After the "great liberator" Bolivar died (hometown Caracas in present-day Venezuela)
The United States, which began its history as what of the New World, grew increasingly wealthy, industrialized, democratic, internationally influential, and generally stable?
as the leftover "dregs"
During the 19th century were did the idea of a "consititution" find advocates?
in Poland, Latin America, the Spanish ruled Philippines, China, the Ottoman Empire, and British-governed India
What three movements arose to challenge continuing patterns of oppression or exclusion?
Abolitionists sought the end of slavery; nationalists hoped to foster unity and independence from foreign rule; and feminists challenged male dominance
What years had waves of revolution after Napolean and European countries became more conservative?
1830, 1848, and 1870 in Paris
What country made an attempt to establish a constitutional regime in 1825?
What revolution was particularly important in prompting Britain to abolish slavery throughout its empire in 1833?
The Great Jamaica Revolt of 1831-32
What successful revolution was followed by three major rebellions in the British West Indies?
the Haitian Revolution
What was the famous motto of the abolitionist movement?
Am I not a man and a brother.
What thinkers in 18th century Europe became increasingly critical of slavery as a violation of the natural rights of every person and the public pronouncements of the American and French revolutions about liberty and equality?
What people were one of the first to express secular antislavery thinking?
First by Quakers and then by Protestant evangelicals in Britain and the United States
What moral arguments were more widely acceptable to oppose slavery?
that it was not necessary for economic progress
What were some of the techniques used to help abolish slavery?
pamphlets with heartrending descriptions of slavery, numerous petitions to Parliament, lawsuits, and boycotts of slave-produced sugar
What happened in 1807 and later in 1834 in Britain?
In 1807, Britain forbade the sale of slaves within its empire and in 1834 emancipated those who remained enslaved
What did British naval vessels do as it patrolled the Atlantic?
intercepted illegal slave ships, and freed their human cargoes in a small West African settlement called Freetown, in present-day Sierra Leone and Monrovia in Liberia
Following the British, when did most Latin American countries abolish slavery?
by the 1850s
What was one of the last Latin American countries to abolish slavery in 1888?
What persuaded the Russian tsar to free the many serfs of that huge country in 1861?
fear of rebellion, economic inefficiency, and moral concerns
After the trade had been declared illegal, where did most of the slaves now go to?
to Cuba and Brazil
What powerful king of the West African state of Asante, was puzzled as to why the British would no longer buy his slaves?
Osei Bonsu; who said "If they think it bad now, why did the think it good before?"
What was the only place in the Atlantic world where the redistribution of land followed the end of slavery?
Large numbers of indentured servants from India and China were imported where?
into the Caribbean, Peru, South Africa, Hawaii, Malaya, and elsewhere to work in mines, on plantations, and in construction projects
Where did freedmen everywhere desperatly seek their own land?
In southern United States, a brief period of "radical reconstruction," followed in which newly free blacks did where subject to what?
to harsh segregation laws, denial of voting rights, a wave of lynching, and a virulent racism
What did the Atlantic revolutions also give new prominence to?
By the end of the 20th century, what idea was so widespread as to seem natural and timeless?
the idea that humankind was divided into separate nations, each with a distinct culture and territory and deserving an independent political life
What did the printing and the publishing industry standardize?
a variety of dialects into a smaller number of European languages, a process that allowed a growing reading public to think of themselves as members of a common linguistic group or nation
What did nationalism inspire?
the political unification of both Germany and Italy
What did nationalism also inspire?
encouraged Greeks and Serbs to assert their independence from the Ottoman Empire; Czechs and Hungarians to demand more autonomy within the Austrian Empire; Poles and Ukrainians to become more aware of their oppression within the Russian Empire; and the Irish to seek "home rule" and separation from Great Britain
By the end of the 19th century, what emerged seeking a homeland in Palestine, emerging from Europe's frequently persecuted Jews?
a small Zionist movement
Popular nationalism made what normal among European states?
rivalry, and the immensity of the suffering and sacrifice that it generated in Europe was vividly disclosed during the horrors of World War I
Nationalism fueled rivalries in European derived states in the Americas for example...
the Mexican-United States War of 1846-48 and the devastating conflict between Paraguay and the Triple Alliance of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay between 1863 and 1870
Who were some supporters of liberal democracy and representative government who saw nationalism, with its emphasis on "the people," as an aid to their aspirations toward wider involvement in political life?
United States and France
What was the view that identified that nation with a particular territory and maintained that people of various cultural backgrounds could assimilate into the dominant culture, as in the process of "becoming American."
What country sometimes defined the nation in racial terms, which excluded those who did not share a common ancestry?
What group established in 1885 gave expression to the idea that their enormously diverse country as a single nation?
the Indian National Congress
What French writer called for "the complete destruction of those prejudices that have established an inequality of rights between the sexes."
What writer pened her famous Vindication of the Rights of Woman, one of the earliest expressions of a feminist consciousness? Saying, "Who made man the exclusive judge, if woman partake with him of the gift of reason."
What things did women increasingly take part in?
in temperance movements, charities, abolitionism, and missionary work
Where did the first organized expression of this new feminism take place?
at the Women's Rights Convention in Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848
At the Women's Rights Convention, who drafted a statement that began by paraphrasing the Declaration of Independence: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men and women are created equal."
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Who published a Women's Bible, excising the parts she found offensive?
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
By 1914, some 100,000 women took part in French feminist organizations, while what claimed 2 million members?
National American Woman Suffrage Association
What women's groups organized a campaign of violence that included blowing up railroad stations , slashing works of art, and smashing department store windows?
British Women's Social and Political Union
What women British activist threw herself in front of the king's horse during a race in Britain in 1913 and was trampled to death?
In Britain, who professionalized nursing and attracted thousands of women into it?
What person in the United States virtually invented "social work," which also became a female-dominated profession?
In 1893, which country became the first to give the rights for all adult women to vote?
In what book by Henrik Ibsen, the heroine, Nora, found herself in a loveless and oppressive marriage, leaves both her husband and her children?
A Doll's House