Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (90):
What assertion was made in an article in the British newspaper the Guardian in June 2006?
"China will be the next superpower"
China's huge population, its booming economy, its massive trade surplus with the US, its entry into world oil markets, its military potential, and growing presence of global affairs suggest China was headed for a major role in the 21st Century.
Which people were considered "barbarians" to the Chinese?
Northern nomads, which frequently posed a military threat and on occasion even conquered and ruled parts of China.
The collapse of the Han dynasty around 220 C.E. ushered in what?
Ushered in more than three centuries of political fragmentation in China and signaled the rise of powerful and locally entrenched aristocratic families.
The fall of the Han dynasty also meant the incursion of what?
The incursion of northern nomads, many of whom learned Chinese, dressed like Chinese, married into Chinese families, and governed northern regions of the country in a Chinese fashion
What discredited Confucianism and opened the door to a greater acceptance of Buddhism and Daoism among the elite?
The condition of disunity, unnatural in the eyes of many thoughtful Chinese during the collapse of the Han Dynasty and the influx of Northern Nomads.
During the centuries of the collapse of the Han Dynasty which region witnessed substantial Chinese migration?
Migration southward toward the Yangzi River Valley, a movement of people that gave southern China some 60 percent of the country's population by 1000.
What accompanied the movement of the Chinese people towards the Yangzi River Valley?
their intensive agriculture, which set in motion a vast environmental transformation, which marked the destruction of the old-growth forests that once covered much of the country and the retreat of elephants
Around 800 C.E. what Chinese official and writer lamented what was happening?
Liu Zongyuan, writing about the forests on fire and not even a shrub remaining from the destruction, where animals used to thrive but now nothing grows or lives.
Under what dynasty did China regain unity in 589?
Under the Sui dynasty
How did the Sui emperors solidify unity in China?
By a vast extension of the country's canal system, stretching some 1,200 miles in length and described by one scholar as "an engineering feat without parallel in the world of its time."
What did the canals under the Sui dynasty link?
It linked northern and southern China economically and contributed much to the prosperity that followed.
Which two dynasties followed the Sui?
the Tang and the Song dynasties which build on the Sui foundations of renewed unity.
Under the Tang and Song dynasty, what did their patterns establish in Chinese life that endured into the 20th century?
Culturally, the era has long been regarded as a "golden age" of arts and literature, setting standards of excellence in poetry, landscape painting, and ceramics
What is Neo-Confucianism?
An effort to revive Confucian thinking while incorporating into it some of the insights of Buddhism and Daoism which came around during the Song dynasty
What were the six major ministries during the Tang and Song dynasties?
Personnel, finance, rites, army, justice, and public work
What accompanied the six major ministries?
the Censorate, which was an agency that exercised surveillance over the rest of the government, checking on the character and competence of public officials
How did they staff the Censorate?
the examination system was revived and made more elaborate, facilitated by the ability to print books for the first time in world history.
How did selecting officials based on merit place a challenge?
Was a challenge to established aristocratic families' hold on public office, Never the less, a good amount of official positions went to the sons of the privileged, even if they had not passed the exam.
Who did the great families of large landowners continue to encroach upon?
They continued to encroach on peasant plots, which was a recurring pattern in rural China from ancient times to present despite the state's periodic efforts to redistribute land in favor of the peasantry
The political and cultural achievements of Song dynasty China was regarded as what?
an "economic revolution" that made the Song dynasty "by far the richest, most skilled, and most populous country on earth."
What did many Chinese cities have a population of?
Over 100,000 people making China the most urbanized country in the world.
What was the population of the Song dynasty capital of Hangzhou?
It was home to more than a million people.
What did a Chinese observer in 1235 provide in his vivid description of Hangzhou?
They are Specialized markets abounded for meats, herbs vegetables, books, rice, and much more.
"Luxuriant inns," marked by a red lantern, feature prostitutes, and wine chambers. Also, specialized agencies managed elaborate dinner parties for the wealthy, complete with a Perfume and Medicine Office to "help sober up the guests.
What did the Italian visitor Marco Polo describe Hangzhou later in the thirteen century as?
as "beyond dispute the finest and noblest [city] in the world."
Under the influence of steppe nomads, whose women led less restricted lives, elite Chinese women of the Tang dynasty era, at least in the north, had participated in what?
had participated in social life with greater freedom than in earlier times.
By the Song dynasty, however, a reviving Confucianism and rapid economic growth tightened what?
seemed to tighten patriarchal restrictions on women and to restore some of the earlier Han dynasty notions of female submission and passivity
How did the Song dynasty historian and scholar Sima Guang sum up the subordination of women to men?
"The boy leads the girl, the girl follows the boy; the duty of husbands to be resolute and wives to be docile begins with this."
For men, masculinity came to be defined less in terms of horseback riding, athleticism, and the warrior values of northern nomads and more in terms of what?
In terms of the refined pursuits of calligraphy, scholarship, painting, and poetry.
The most compelling expression of a tightening patriarchy lay in foot binding, apparently beginning with whom?
Beginning among dancers and courtesans in the tenth or eleventh century C.E., this practice involved the tight wrapping of young girls' feet, usually breaking the bones of the foot and causing intense pain
During and after the Song dynasty, foot binding found acceptance among elite families and later spread in Chinese society becoming associated with what?
Associated with new images of female beauty and eroticism that emphasized small size, frailty, and deference and served to keep women restricted to the "inner quarters," where Confucian tradition asserted that they belonged
Foot binding also served to distinguish what?
Chinese women from their "barbarian" counterparts and elite women from commoners and peasants.
A rapidly commercializing economy undermined the position of whom in the textile industry?
for Women, urban workshops and state factories, run by men, increasingly took over the skilled tasks of weaving textiles, especially silk, which had previously been the work of rural women in their homes. Becuase of this they had lost the more lucrative income-generating work of weaving silk fabrics.
But as women's economic role in textile production declined, other opportunities beckoned in an increasingly prosperous Song China. In the cities ...
women operated restaurants, sold fish and vegetables, and worked as maids, cooks, and dressmakers.
The growing prosperity of elite families funneled increasing numbers of women into roles like...
concubines, entertainers, courtesans, and prostitutes. Their ready availability surely reduced the ability of wives to negotiate as equals with their husbands, setting women against one another and creating endless household jealousies
The Song dynasty witnessed positive trends in the lives of women like...
the property rights expanded, allowing women to control their own dowries and to inherit property from their families. Furthermore, lower-ranking but ambitious officials strongly urged the education of women, so that they might more effectively raise their sons and increase the family's fortune
China's most enduring and intense interaction with foreigners came from the north, involving whom?
Many nomadic pastoral or semi-agricultural peoples of the steppes
North Nomadic people lived in areas unable to sustain Chinese-style farming, the northern nomads had long focused their economies on what?
around the raising of livestock (sheep, cattle, goats) and the mastery of horse riding.
What did pastoral societies need from China?
They needed grain and other agricultural products, also their leaders loved Chinese manufactured and luxury goods -wine and silk.
From the nomads' point of view, the threat often came from whom?
Often come from the Chinese, who periodically directed their own military forces deep into the steppes, build the Great Wall to keep the nomads out, and often proved unwilling to allow pastoral peoples easy access to trading opportunities within China.
What did the Chinese need from the nomads?
Their lands were the source of horses, which were essential for the Chinese military. Other products of the steppes and the forests beyond, such as skins, furs, hides, and amber, also valued in China
How were Chinese viewed?
China became the "middle kingdom," the center of the world, infinitely superior to the "barbarian" peoples beyond its borders. With its long history, great cities, refined tastes, sophisticated intellectual and artistic achievements, bureaucratic state, literate elite, and prosperous economy. China represented "civilization".
China was a "_____ _______," graciously shedding its light most fully to nearby barbarians and with diminished intensity to those farther away.
What would Foreigners have to do who were seeking access to China?
They had to send a delegation to the Chinese court, where they would perform the kowtow, a series of ritual bowings and prostrations, and present their tribute - products of value from their countries - to the Chine emperor.
What would the Chinse emperor give in return for the foreigner's submission?
He would grant permission for foreigners to trade in China's rich markets and would provide them with gifts or "bestowals," often worth far more than the tribute they had offered.
What would foreign rulers gain from trying to gain access to China?
They could gain prestige as they basked in the reflected glory of even this subordinate association with the great Chinese civilization. The official titles, seals of office, and ceremonial robes they received from China proved useful in their local struggle for power
What was the name of an early nomadic confederacy established about the same time as the Han dynasty and eventually reaching from Manchuria to Central Asia?
Xiongnu, devastating Xiongnu raids into northern China persuaded the Chinese emperor to negotiate an arrangement that recognized the nomadic stater as a political equal, promised its leader a princess in marriage and agreed to supply him with quantities of grain, wine, and silk.
The realities of the situation between Xiongnu were summed up in this warning to the Han dynasty in the first century B.C.E.:
Just make sure that the silks and grain stuff you bring the Xiongnu are the right measure and quality, that's all...If the goods you deliver are up to measure and good quality, all right. But if there is any deficiency or the quality is not good, then when the autumn harvest comes, we will take our horses and trample all over your crops
The Uighurs who during the Tang dynasty as a series of Turkic empires arose in Mongolia extorted large"gifts," from Chinese, actually rescued the Tang dynasty from a serious internal revolt in the 750s what did they get in return?
The Uighur leader gained one of the Chinese emperor's daughters as a wife and arranged a highly favorable exchange of poor-quality horses for high-quality silk, which brought half a million rolls of the precious fabric annually into the Uighur lands
What were the Steppe nomads interested in?
They were generally not much interested in actually conquering and ruling China. It was easier and more profitable to extort goods from a functioning Chinese state.
When China broke down, and various nomadic groups moved in to "pick up the pieces" which peoples conquered and governed part of China?
After the collapse of the Tang dynasty, the Khitan and then the Jin, or Jurchen, peoples established states that encompassed parts of northern China as well as major areas of the steppes to the north.
The practice of "bestowing gifts on barbarians," long a part of the tribute system, allowed the proud Chinese to imagine that they were still in control of the situation even though what?
Even as they were paying heavily paying for protection from nomadic incursion.
Korea, Vietnam, and Japan which were newly emerging states were also involved in tributary relationships with China, unlike the northern nomads, these societies...
These societies were thoroughly agricultural and sedentary.
What did early Korean states, which emerged in the fourth through seventh centuries C.E. refer to their rulers as?
with the Chinese term wang meaning king.
Because of the succession of dynasties -the Silla, Koryo, and Joseon - what did Korea maintain?
generally maintained its political independence while participating in China's tribute system. Its leaders actively embraced the connection with China and especially during the Silla dynasty, sought to turn their small state into a miniature version of Tang China
But Chinese efforts to set up _____ ____ and to assimilate Koreans to Chinese culture provoked sharp military resistance, persuading the Chinese to withdraw their military forces in 688 and to establish a tributary relationship with a largely independent Korea.
What did the tribute missions to China provide for Korean rulers?
It provided them with knowledge of Chinese court life and administrative techniques, which they sought to replicate back home
What was the new capital in Korea modeled directly on the Chinese capital of Chang'an?
How were different religions brought back to Korea from China?
Thousands of Korean students were sent to China, where they studied primarily Confucianism but also natural sciences and the arts. Buddhist monks visited centers of learning and pilgrimage in China and brought back popular forms of Chinese Buddhism, which quickly took root in Korea.
What did tribute missions enable trade on both official and private?
Mostly in luxury goods such as ceremonial clothing, silks, fancy teas, Confucian and Buddhist texts, and artwork - all of which enriched the lives of a Korean aristocracy that was becoming increasingly Chinese in culture
The efforts to plant Confucian values and Chinese culture in Korea left a scholar to see what?
the 'overwhelmingly negative" impact on Korean women, particularly after 1300.
What did Early Chinese observers notice and strongly disapprove of in Korea/
"free choice" marriages in Korea as well as the practice of women singing and dancing together late at night. Korean patterns too flexible.
Earlier, a Korean woman had generally given birth and raised her young children in her parents' home, where she was often joined by her husband, what do others believe?
They strongly discouraged it, for it was deeply offensive to those who espoused Confucian orthodoxy, which held that a married woman belonged to her husband's family
Chinese cultural influence, except Buddhism, had little impact beyond the aristocracy and certainly did not penetrate the lives of Korea's serf-like peasants. Nor did it register among Koreas many what?
slaves, amounting to about one-third of the country's population by 1100.
And in the 1400s, Korea moved toward greater cultural independence by developing what?
A phonetic alphabet, known as Hangul, for writing the Korean language. Resisted by conservative male elites, who were long accustomed to Chinese character to that of Korean, this new form of writing gradually too hold, especially in private correspondence, in popular fiction, and among women.
Where was the cultural heartland of Vietnam located?
In the Red River Valley which was fully incorporated into the Chinese state for more than a thousand years.
Like the Koreans, what did Vietnam borrow heavily from?
from China, they borrowed Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism, administrative techniques, the exam system, artistic and literary styles- even as its popular culture remained distinct
What were the Vietnamese regarded as by the Chinese?
"southern barbarians" which were ruled by Chinese officials who expected to fully assimilate this rich rice-growing region into China culturally as well as politically
What was brought to Vietnam from the Chinese?
Chinese-style irrigated agriculture was introduced.
What did the Chinese replace in Vietnam in official business?
What Chinese-based thing in Vietnam, functioned to undermine an established aristocracy, to provide some measure of social mobility for commoners, and to create a merit-based scholar-gentry class to staff the bureaucracy, more so in Korea than in Vietnam?
Chinese-based examination system in Vietnam
Beyond the elite what remained unique to Vietnamese?
a distinctive language, a fondness for cockfighting, and the habit of chewing betel nuts. More importantly, Vietnam long retained a greater role for women in social and economic life, despite heavy Chinese influence.
What became part of Vietnamese popular religion, even as Confucian-based ideas took root among the elite?
Female nature deities and a "female Buddha"
Following independence from China, and as Vietnam expanded south, northern officials tried in vain to impose more orthodox Confucian gender practices such as what?
to impose gender practices in place of local customs that allowed women to choose their own husbands and married men to live in the households of their wives
Like the Koreans, the Vietnamese developed a variation of Chinese writing called what?
chu nom ("southern script"), which provided the basis for an independent national literature and a vehicle for the writing of most educated women
How were the Japanese islands sperate from China, unlike Korea and Vietnam?
separated by 100 miles or more of the ocean and were never successfully invaded or conquered by their giant mainland neighbor
The state found much that was useful from whom and set out deliberately and systematically, to transform Japan into a centralized bureaucratic state on the Chinese model?
Tang dynasty China
Who was Shotoku Taishi?
A prominent aristocrat from one of the major clans who was the initial leader of the effort to transform Japan into a centralized bureaucratic state on the Chinese model
In 604 C.E. Shotoku Taishi issued what, which proclaimed the Japanese ruler as a Chinese-style emperor and encouraging both Buddhism and Confucianism?
Seventeen Article Constitution
He launched a series of large-scale missions to China, which took hundreds of Japnese monks, scholars, artists, and student to the mainland, to put into practice what they learned.
Which two capital cities arose, and each model on the Chinese capital of Chang'an?
first Nara and then Heian-kyo (Kyoto)
What proved attractive among the elites in Japan?
The Chinese writing system and with it an interest in historical writing, calligraphy, and poetry.
What did the various schools of Chinese Buddhism teach that took root in Japan?
Art, architecture, education, medicine, views of the afterlife, attitudes toward suffering and the impermanence of life - all of this and more reflected the influence of Buddhist culture in Japan
As political power became increasingly decentralized, local authorities developed their own military forces, called what?
the famous samurai warrior class of Japanese society. Bearing their exquisite curved swords, the samurai developed a distinctive set of values featuring, loyalty, endurance, honor, great skill in martial arts, and a preference for death over surrender
What does bushido mean?
The way of the warrior
What did a Chinese minister in the eleventh century write?
"The educated men of the land, regard the carrying of arms as a disgrace." The Japanese clearly did not agree. Japan's celebration of the samurai and of military virtues contrasted sharply with China's emphasis on intellectual achievements and political office holding, which were accorded higher prestige than bearing arms.
What does kami mean?
They were sacred spirits associated with human ancestors and various natural phenomena. Much later referred to as Shinto, this tradition provided legitimacy to the imperial family, based on claims of descent from the sun goddess. Because veneration of the kami lacked philosophy or ritual, it conflicted very little with Buddhism.
What is tanka?
A highly stylized Japanese poetic form which was developed early and has remained a favored means of expression ever since.
Where does much of our knowledge of this courtly culture come from?
Comes from the work of women writers, who composed their diaries and novels in the vernacular Japanese script, rather than in the classical Chinese used by elite men.
What book was written by the woman author Murasaki Shikibu around 1000 and provides an intimate picture of the intrigues and romances of court life?
The Tale of Genji
Why did Japanese women begin to lose status in the twelfth century and later?
It had less to do with Confucian pressures than with the rise of a warrior culture. As the personal relationships of samurai warriors to their lords replaced marriage alliances as a political strategy, the influence of women in political life was reduced, but this was an internal Japanese phenomenon, not a reflection of Chinese influence