Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (124):
Written by a prominent Roman known as ____ __ ______, this eyewitness account details reactions to the volcanic eruption of Mount Vesuvius, located on the Southwestern side of the Italian peninsula on August 24, 76 C.E.
Pliny the Younger
Sudra color was ___ and were the ____ of Purusha, as they performed the duties of labor.
How were India and China's social organizations similar?
Both civilizations determined social status for most people at birth, there was little social mobility, sharp distinctions between people and great inequalities in social life and religious or cultural traditions.
With growing popularity of Daoism it provided new images of feminine and new roles for women. Daoist texts referred to the dao as what?
as "mother" and urged the traditionally feminine virtues of yielding and passive acceptance rather than male-oriented striving of Confucianism
How many slaves were estimated to be in classical Athens?
60,000 slaves or about one-third of the total population
Following the destruction of the North African city of Carthage, how many people became enslaved the Roman empire?
55,000 people were enslaved
Towards the end of the second century, C.E. emerged a massive peasant uprising known as what?
The Yellow Turban Rebellion because of the yellow scarves the peasants wore around their heads. They got an army of 360,000 armed followers.
What was the earlier idea of how the caste system developed?
Believed to have evolved from a racially defined encounter between light-skinned Aryan invaders and the darker-hued native peoples
What did Aristotle observe about the ox?
"the poor man's slave"
The city of Pompeii had around how many people?
around 20,000 people
A further support for this idea of inherent inequality and permanent difference derived from emerging Hindu notions of ____, _____, and ____
Karma, dharma, and rebirth
What was Sparta's answer in case the helots ever rose up an army?
To have a militaristic regime, constantly ready for war to keep the helots in their place
Woman be law were not allowed to do what in Greece?
By law, women were forbidden to buy or sell land and could negotiate contracts only if the sum involved was valued at less than a bushel of barley
What did Romans regard their slaves as?
"barbarians" - lazy, unreliable, immoral, prone to thieving, and came to think of certain peoples, such as Asiatic Greeks, Syrians, and Jews, as slaves by nature
IN the Retirement stage of life what were their duties?
Both husband and wife withdraw to the forests following the birth of grandchildren; diminished household duties; greater focus on spiritual practice; sex permitted once a month.
Who was the god Dionysus in a mystery cult in Greece?
the god of wine, ecstasy, and poetic inspiration, popular with women
During the time what did the Hammurabi's law code casually refer to?
Mesopotamian slavery, as it was already a long-established tradition in the region in all the First Civilizations.
Who was Wang Mang?
a high court official of the Han dynasty who usurped the emperor's throne in 8 C.E. and immediately launched a series of startling reforms
Thus a kind of "patriarchal equilibrium" ensured what?
ensured the long-term persistence of women's subordination despite fluctuations and notwithstanding various efforts to redefine gender roles or push against gendered expectations
Where does the term caste system come from?
From a Portuguese word casta which means "race" or "Purity of blood."
What does hetaera mean?
What does the term "scholar-gentry" mean?
It reflected people's twin privilege, with homes in both urban and rural areas, members of the scholar-gentry class lived luxuriously.
Brahmins color was _____ and were the ____ of Purusha, as they performed the duties as priests and teachers.
According to varna theory, these four classes were from the body of the god _____ and were therefore eternal and changeless.
Pompeii revealed as a small but prosperous center of commerce and agriculture and exporting and importing of goods, what else did it host?
Also hosted numerous vineyards, production facilities for wine and olive oil, and fisheries industry as well as a tourist destination.
The Greek writer ______ exclaimed: "Teaching a woman to read and write? What a terrible thing to do! Like feeding a vile snake on more poison."
What did the Athenian writer Xenophon declare?
he stated that Sparta's legendary founder Lycurgus "caused lovers to abstain from sexual intercourse with boys."
The three classes of the caste system came to be regarded as pure Aryans and were called the "_____"
"twice-born" - for they experienced not only a physical birth but also formal initiation into their respective varnas and status as people of prestigious Aryan descent.
A series of wall paintings on a Pompeii building known as the _____ __ _______ depicts the process of initiation into the cult of Dionysus, perhaps in preparation for marriage
Villa of Mysteries
Untouchables didn't have a color nor were they apart of Purusha, since they were ______ _____
Which two Confucian texts summarized the ideal position of women in the eyes of elite male writers?
the notions of "Men go out, women stay in" which emphasized the public and political roles of men in contrast to the domestic and private domain of women
Second, "three obediences, "emphasized a woman's subordination first to her father, then to her husband, and finally to her son
The greatest of the Greek philosophers Aristotle developed the notion that some people were "-______" and should be enslaved for their own good and for that of the larger society.
"slaves by nature"
To ordinary people in Pompeii, they had lararia which means what?
During the early times of the Han Dynasty, what were merchants forbidden to do?
Forbidden to wear silk clothing, ride horses, or carry arms. Nor were they permitted to sit for civil service exams or hold public office
What were the three customs Ban Zhao observed happened when a baby girl was born?
She was placed below the bed to show that she was "lowly and weak," required always to "humble herself before others." Then she was given a piece of broken pottery to play with, signifying that "her primary duty [was] to be industrious." Finally, her birth was announced to the ancestors with an offering to indicate that she was responsible for "the continuation of [ancestor] worship in the home."
The idea that society was forever divided into four ranked classes called what was deeply embedded in Indian thinking
What did an inscription say on the threshold of one house expressing the entrepreneurial spirit of the town?
"Gain is pure joy"
Which emperor in 124 B.C.E in China, established an imperial academy where potential officials were trained?
Emperor Wu Di
To strengthen women's body for childbearing, girls were encouraged to do what?
Take part in sporting events- running, wrestling, throwing the discus and javelin.
Where does the term caste system come from?
From a Portuguese word casta which means "race" or "Purity of blood."
"What causes women a bad reputation," declared Andromache, a female character in the Greek playwright Euripides' ___ ______ ____, "is not remaining inside."
The Trojan Women
ON several notable occasions the slaves themselves rose in rebellion. The most famous uprising occurred in 73 B.C.E when a slave gladiator named _____ and led seventy other slaves from a school for gladiators in a desperate bid for freedom
When the Qin dynasty unified China by 210 B.C.E most land was held by whom?
Small-scale peasant farmers
IN 700 and 4000 B.C.E as free male citizens of Athens moved toward unprecedented participation in political life, what happened to the women?
The women experienced growing limitations. They had no role whatsoever in the Assembly, the councils, or the juries of Athens. Women had to be represented by a guardian and court proceedings did not even refer to them by name, but only as someone's wife or mother
What had the vast majority of Roman slaves been?
Roman slaves had been prisoners captured in the many wars that accompanied the creation of the empire
In the Wandering ascetic stage of life what were their duties?
Only for men (women return to household); total rejection of ordinary existence; life as wandering hermit without shelter or possessions; caste becomes irrelevant; focus on achieving moksha and avoiding future rebirth
What were some of the luxury's that the scholar-gentry class enjoyed?
Multi-storied houses, the finest of silk clothing, gleaming carriages, private orchestras, and high-stakes gambling
Vaisya color was _____ and were the ____ of Purusha, as they performed the duties of farmers, merchants, and artisans
What did the Yellow Turban movement look forward to?
the "Great Peace" a golden age of equality, social harmony, and common ownership of property
Women became subordinate overall and were seen as the central figures of what?
The central figures of family life, they served as repositories and transmitters of their peoples' culture.
The Chinese woman writer and court official ___ _____, observed that the ancients had practiced three customs when a baby girl was born.
Throughout the long course of China's civilization, the vast majority of its population consisted of what?
Peasants who lived in small households representing two or three generations
What did the poem "After Passing the Examination" show?
It should the fame and fortune that awaited an accomplished student as well as the continuing loyalty to family and home that ideally marked those who succeed.
The third class was the ______ class, originally commoners who cultivated the land
How were Merchants viewed in the eyes of China's elite culture?
They were viewed widely as unproductive, making a shameful profit from selling the work of others. Stereotyped as greedy, luxury-loving, and materialistic.
What were helots?
People that the Spartans conquered as they were immediate neighbors and reduced them to a status of permanent servitude, not far removed from slavery
What were Brahmins forbidden to eat, while Kshatriyas were permitted to do so?
During the Tang dynasty, which poet wrote a poem titled "After Passing the Examination?"
Beyond caste, behavior was ideally defined in terms of four stages of life, at least for the first three varna groups. Each new stage was marked by a samskara, which means?
A ritual initiating the person into their new phase of life
Source 5.1 on pg 222 shows a portrait of _______ ___, a prominent businessman and magistrate (an elected public official), and his unnamed wife.
In the eyes of the scholar-gentry, peasants were the what?
The solid productive backbone of the country and their hard work and endurance in the face of difficulties were worthy of praise.
IN the first century C.E. a number of newer traditions, often called "______ ___" were very important as they had a number of household gods.
A new ranking emerged even lower than the Sudras, so-called ______, were men and women who did the work considered most unclean and polluting, such as cremating corpses, dealing with the skins of dead animals, and serving as executioners.
What did Romans regard their slaves as?
"barbarians" - lazy, unreliable, immoral, prone to thieving, and came to think of certain peoples, such as Asiatic Greeks, Syrians, and jews, as slaves by nature
How did Greek societies view sexual choices?
They viewed sexual choice more casually and as a matter of taste
At the imperial academy, how were potential officials trained?
They were trained as scholars and immersed in texts dealing with history, literature, art, and math, with an emphasis on Confucian teaching
If a slaves killed his master under Roman Law what happened?
All of the master's slaves were killed
In other places in India, urban-based civilizations gave rise to specialized occupations, many organized in guilds that regulated their own affairs in a particular region. Over time, these occupational based groups, known as ___, blended with the varna system.
In China wealth meant what?
At the top of the caste system were the ______, priests whose rituals and sacrifices alone could ensure the proper functioning of the world.
Unlike American slavery of later times, ____ practice was not identified with a particular racial or ethnic group. Egyptians, Syrians, Jews, Greeks, Gauls, North Africans, and many other found themselves enslaved.
Who was Aspasia born in the Greek city of Miletus?
an exception to the restricted lives of upper-class Athenian women. Born to a wealthy family that educated its daughters
The cellular or ______ structure of caste society allowed various peoples, cultures, and traditions to find a place within a larger Indian civilization
By the end of the Han Dynasty, the imperial academy had enrolled how many students?
Who declared that "Caste has no impact on life today?"
Chezi K. Ganesan in 2010
Kshatriya color was ___ and were the ____ of Purusha, as they performed the duties as warriors and rulers
How was India's social system different from China's?
It gave priority to religious status and ritual purity, whereas China elevated political officials to the highest of elite positions. The caste system divided Indian society into vast numbers of distinct social groups; China had fewer, but broader, categories of society_scholar-gentry, landlords, peasants, merchants, Finally, India's caste society defined those social groups far more rigidly than in China and provided even less opportunity for social mobility
A rags-to-riches story told of a ___ _____ who became an adviser to the emperor himself.
Far below these "twice-born" in the hierarchy of varna groups were the _____, native peoples incorporated into the margins of Aryan society in very subordinate positions
Sudras; were regarded as servants of their social betters, they were not allowed to hear or repeat the Vedas or to take part in Aryan rituals
In the Householder stage of life what were their duties?
Marriage and family; men practice caste-based career/occupation; women serve as wives and mothers, perform household rituals and sacrifices, actively support children and elders
In the student stage of life what were their duties?
Boys live with a teacher (guru); learn Sanskrit, rituals, Vedas; practice obedience, respect, celibacy, nonviolence
What was the ideal Spartan male warrior?
skilled in battle ,able to endure hardship, and willing to die for his city.
Because of the Jatis system, Brahmins were divided into may separate jatis or _____, as were the other varnas along with the untouchables.
An eighth-century C.E. Chinese poem by ___ ____ reflects poignantly on the enduring hardships of peasant life.
If a slavew killed his master under Roman Law what happened?
All of the masters slaves were killed
What did Wang Mang believe about small-scale peasant farmers in trying to recreate the golden age of long ago?
Those small-scale peasant farmers represented the backbone of Chinese society
Where did pirates slave trade?
They slave traded on the island of Delos
During the time of Jesus, the Italian heartland of the Roman Empire had how many slaves?
2 to 3 million slaves, representing 33 to 40 percent of the population.
Who was a former high-ranking concubine in the imperial court, who came to power amid much palace intrigue and was the only woman ever to rule China with the title of emperor?
How were yin and yang viewed?
Yang was viewed as masculine and related to Heaven rulers, strength, rationality, and light, superiority; yin was viewed as the lower feminine principle, was associated with the earth, subjects, weakness, emotion, and darkness
The second class was called the _____ class, who were warriors and rulers charged with protecting and governing society.
"It is better to do one's duty badly than another's well"
A frequently quoted saying summed up the underlying idea of Indian society
On pg 211 this tenth-century rendering by the painter __ _______ shows these upper-class women serving as musicians for a high official of theTang dynasty emperor entitled The night Reveals of Han Xizai
During the First Civilizations which problems helped to contribute to the growth of slavery?
War, patriarchy, and the notion of private property
What were Senior officials given in China to show their rank?
They moved about in carriages and were bedecked with robes, ribbons, seals, and headdresses appropriate to their rank
What were three things required of the people in China?
Tax money, military service, and equivalent of 1 months labor
What did Ge Hong study as?
Studied as a Daoist scholar with a Daoist sage and tried to create the elixir of life/immortality
What does Qi mean?
It is the circulation of life force
Why did small-scale landowners lose their land
They had to work, sharecropping in China, and landowners were very cruel
Why were Peasant farmers losing their land?
Land became too expensive, taxation, and population pressure
What did Wang Mang want to do with slavery?
Worked to limit amount of slaves someone could own but was assassinated by the landlords
What was the "Great Peace"?
harmony, everything owned together, kind of like the program of the Communists.
Why were merchants hated in China?
they were seen as luxury-loving and greedy, so they were forbidden to do different tasks. (The US depends on merchants in our society.)
Why did Chenzi say "caste system has no impact today"
because he was making millions in silicon valley
Chinese emperor Han Wu Di in 100's B.C.E started what?
Started the civil service with an imperial academy with about 30,000 students.
Who were the scholar-gentry?
The landlords were kind of like aristocrats
Lincoln had a debate with who?
Stephen Douglas, who had a deep voice and Lincoln had a high pitched voice but was witty and sly. Douglas argued that the slaves in the North have it worse than the South, as there was no shelter, they were starving and were treated worse. Douglas won the debate but lost the election.
What percentage of China were slaves
About 1% were slaves
How were slaves in India?
India had very little slaves like China because of secular laws and how they thought religiously.
Why didn't they need slaves in India?
Because they had untouchables and lower class people who were like slaves and doing the work.
Why wasn't the caste system always good?
It allowed the rich to become richer and the poor to become poorer
How much of the Greek population were slaves?
1/3 of the population were slaves
In Rome what was one of the percentages of a number of slaves compared to the population?
What was social debt?
If you are a slave it is like you are a nobody
Slavery led to what injustice latter on?
How did slaves first come about?
People learned how to domesticate animals and started to treat humans the same way
The Brahmins were who in the caste system?
Were the Priests, top dog in caste
The Kshatriyas in the caste system.
Second highest and comprised of warriors and leaders
The Vasias were who in the caste system?
The third highest group comprised of Merchants, commoners, and peasants.
The ______ in Europe was an occupational group that later influenced the occupationally based caste of Jatis.
Which type of people were considered the lowest and really unclean?
The toilet cleaners, handling the dead, and executioners
What means to do your duty/job within your own caste.
dharma - It is better to do your job poorly than another means job good
How were some of the ways you could move up the caste system?
By taking on the culture of those above you, you can find your ancestor that makes you part of an upper-class, also acquire land and wealth to move up.