Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (82):
What has been a prominent feature of human history, when exchanging goods among who?
The exchange of goods among communities occupying different ecological zones
What the different areas that generated different products than their counterparts?
Coastlands and highlands, steppes and farmlands, islands and mainlands, valleys and mountains, deserts and forests all made different products
What are a few examples of production of particular products in certain places?
Silk in China, certain spices in Southeast Asia, and incense in southern Arabia.
In the world during what time did long-distance trade become more important than ever before.
During 500 to 1500, long-distance trade linked and shaped distant societies and peoples.
Why was trade important?
Economically, commerce often altered consumption and human diets and shaped daily life. Trade diminished the economic self-sufficiency of local societies even as it altered the structure of those societies as well. Trade transformed political life. Trade also became a vehicle for the spread of religious ideas, technology, disease-bearing germs, and plants and animals, also it encouraged people to specialize in producing particular products.
Who did West Africans trade with, to import salt, which was necessary for human diets, from their distant mines in exchange for their gold?
The incense of northern Somalia and southern Arabia, found eager consumers where?
In ancient Egypt and Babylon, India and China, Greece and Rome
What were incenses used for, for example, frankincense and myrrh?
used for medical purposes, religious ceremonies and as an antidote to the odors of unsanitary cities, incense also bore the "aroma of eros."
What was another name that incense also bore?
"Aroma of eros"
How did trade affect the lives of many working people?
It encouraged them to specialize in producing particular products for sale in distant markets rather than for use in their own communities.
How did Merchants become a distinct social group?
They started to view with suspicion by others because of their impulse to accumulate wealth without actually producing anything themselves.
Where was it seen how trade became a means of social mobility?
Chinese merchants were able to purchase landed estates and establish themselves within the gentry class
Why was long-distance trade good?
It enabled elite groups in society to distinguish themselves from commoners by acquiring prestigious goods from a distance - silk, tortoiseshell, jade, rhinoceros horn, or particular feathers.
What did trade become a vehicle for?
the spread of religious ideas, technological innovations, disease-bearing germs, and plants and animals to regions far from their places of origin
Because of trade which religions spread?
Buddhism made its way from India to Central and East Asia, and Islam crossed the Sahara into West Africa.
What was one of the most significant outcomes of the increasingly dense network of long-distance commerce during the era of third-wave civilizations?
the immense cultural and biological transformation
What had the Eurasian landmass long been home to?
to the majority of humankind as well as to the world's most productive agriculture, largest civilizations, and greatest centration of pastoral peoples. But it also gave rise to one of the world's most extensive and sustained networks of exchane known as the Silk Roads.
Geographically how did the Silk Road begin?
Eurasia was divided into inner and outer zones that represent quite different environments.
What was the climate of Outer Eurasia?
Consists of relatively warm, well-watered areas, suitable for agriculture, which provided the setting for the great civilizations of China, India, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean.
What was the climate of Inner Eurasia?
the lands of eastern Russia and Central Asia - lies farther north and has a harsher and drier climate, much of it is not conducive to agriculture.
What did the Inner portion of Eurasia rely on instead of agriculture?
Herding their animals from horse-back, the pastoral people of this region had for centuries traded with and raided their agricultural neighbors to the south.
What products did the Inner Eurasia exchange with the Outer Eurasia?
Products of the forest and of semi-arid northern grasslands known as the steppes - such as hides, furs livestock, wool, and amber were exchanged for the agricultural products and manufactured goods of adjacent civilizations.
What are Steppes?
Semi-arid northern grasslands produced products of hides, furs, livestock, wool, and amber.
What did the movement of pastoral peoples for thousands of years diffuse?
Indo-European language, bronze metallurgy, horse-based technology, and more all across Eurasia
In the last five centuries B.C.E. from the south who did the Persian Empire invade?
invaded the territory of pastoral peoples in present-day Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan
In the last five centuries B.C.E. from the west who did Alexander the Great's empire stretch into?
In the last five centuries B.C.E. from the east, who did China's Han dynasty extended is authority into?
extended its authority westward, seeking to control the nomadic Xiongnu and to gain access to the powerful "heavenly horses"
When did the Silk Road trade flourish again?
During the seventh and eighth centuries C.E. as the Byzantine Empire, the Muslim Abbasid dynasty, and Tang dynasty China created an almost continuous belt of strong states across Eurasia.
What happened in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries which empire briefly encompassed almost the entire route of the Silk Roads in a single state?
the Mongol Empire
What technological innovations over many centuries, made a more effective means of transportation across the vast distances of the Silk Roads?
Such as yokes, saddles, and stirrups, made the use of camels, horses, and oxen more effective means of transportation
How did the vast array of goods make its way across the Silk Roads?
Often carried in large camel caravans that traversed the harsh and dangerous steppes, deserts, and oases of Central Asia
What made the products of the silk roads luxury?
They were in high demand and hard to find, with their goods destined for an elite and wealthy market, rather than staple goods, for only readily moved commodities of great value could compensate for the high costs of transportation across such long and forbidding distances
Which of the luxury goods came to symbolize the Eurasian network of exchange known as the Silk Road?
Where did Silk originate?
In China, by 3000 B.C.E. or earlier.
After 300 B.C.E. or so what happened to silk?
the precious fabric increasingly found a growing market all across the linked commercial network of the Afro-Eurasian world.
How did woman play a process in the supply and demand of silk?
Chinese women, mostly in rural areas, were responsible for every step of the ingenious and laborious enterprise of silk production as they tended the mulberry trees on whose leaves silkworms fed, they turned these fibers into thread and wove them into textiles
What type of tree did Silkworms feed on?
Which thirteenth-century writer talked about how many rural families persisted into poverty?
WHich places held silk in high demand?
"barbarian" invaders from the north, India, Roman Empire, and many women.
Who was the writer in the first century C.E. who was outraged at the moral impact of wearing revealing silk garments?
Seneca the Younger
What understanding of silk had spread by the sixth century c.e.?
The knowledge and technology for producing raw silk had spread beyond China
Which other peoples learned how to produce the precious fabric of silk?
Koreans, Japanese, Indians, and Persians
Where was silk used as currency?
In central Asia, it was used as a means of accumulating wealth.
In both the Byzantine Empire and China, what was silk soon seen as?
Silk became a symbol of high status, and governments passed laws that restricted silk clothing to members of the elite.
Which religions had silk become associated?
Silk became associated with the sacred in the expanding world religions of Buddhism and Christianity.
By the twelfth century who was wearing silk?
The West African king of Ghana was wearing silk, and that fabric circulated in Egypt, Ethiopia, and along the East African coast as well
How did the Silk Road have important economic and social consequences?
Peasants in the Yangzi River delta of southern China sometimes gave up the cultivation of food crops, choosing to focus instead on producing silk, paper, porcelain, lacquerware, or iron tools many of which were destined for the markets of the Silk Roads.
By the twelfth-century which Persian merchant made a personal fortune from his long-distance trading business and with his profits purchased an enormously expensive silk covering for the Kaaba, the central shrine of Islam in Mecca?
In which cities did Buddhism quickly spread known as the oasis cities of Central Asia?
such as Merv, Samarkand, Khotan, and Dunhuang
Who were the Sogdians?
A central Asian people, whose merchants established an enduring network of exchange with China.
In the second-century c.e., what did two Sogdians do?
They were instrumental in translating Sanskrit Buddhist texts into Chinese
Since the Sogdians dominated the Silk Road trade for much of the first millennium C.E., what spread?
Their language became a medium of communication all along that commercial network
What was a set back in the spread of Buddhism among pastoral peoples of Central Asia?
The absence of a written language was an opstacle to the penetration of a highly literate religion and their nomadic ways made the founding of monasteries, so important to Buddhism, quite difficult.
Who were the nomadic Jie people?
They controlled much of northern China after the collapse of the Han dynasty.
Who was the ruler of the Jie people?
the ruler in the early fourth-century C.E., was Shi Le
Who did Shi Le become acquainted with?
He became acquainted with a central Asian Buddhist monk called Fotudeng, who traveled widely on the Silk Road
Who was the Central Asian Buddhist Monk called Fotudeng?
The monk's reputation as a miracle worker, a rainmaker, and a fortuneteller and his skills as a military strategist cemented a personal relationship with Shi Le and led to the conversions of thousands and the construction of hundreds of Buddhist temples.
What does "begging bowls" mean?
A symbol rather than a daily activity of the monks
What did the Sculptures and murals of the Buddhist monasteries depict?
Musicians and acrobats, women applying makeup, and even drinking parties.
What was Kaaba?
The central shrine of Islam in Mecca
What happened in the Sogdian city of Samarkand that changed Buddhism?
The use of Zoroastrian fire rituals apparently became a part of Buddhist practice.
What statues appeared in the area northwest of India that had been influenced by the invasions of Alexander the Great?
Statues of the Buddha reveal distinctly Greek influences
What was the Greco-Roman mythological figure of Heracles, the son of Zeus associated with?
With great strength, courage, masculinity, and sexual prowess, was used to represent Vajrapani, on of the divine protectors of the Buddha.
Beyond goods and cultures what also traveled the trade routes of the Eurasian Silk Roads?
An early example of disease on the Silk Road can be seen where?
In the Greek city-state of Athens which in 430 - 429 B.C.E. was suddenly afflicted by a new and still-unidentified infectious disease that had entered Greece via seaborne trade from Egypt, killing perhaps 25 percent of its army and permanently weakening the city-state
What disease of the Silk Roads affected the Roman Empire and Han dynasty China?
Smallpox and measles devast3ed the populations of both empires, contributing to their political collapse.
What disease saw an intermittent outbreak during 534 and 750 C.E. that ravaged the coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea as the black rats that carried the disease arrived via the seaborne trade with India, where they originally lived?
The bubonic plague
Which capital city of the Byzantine Empire, lost thousands of people per day during a forty-day period in 534 C.E. to the Bubonic plague?
Paradoxically the disease strengthened what?
Strengthened the appeal to Christianity in Europe and Buddhism in China, for both of them offered compassion in the face of immense suffering.
The most well-known dissemination of disease from the Silk Road was associated with which Empire?
The Mongol Empire, which briefly unified much of the Eurasian landmass during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries C.E.
During the brief unifying of the Mongol Empire what happened in the period of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries C.E.?
The spread of the Black Death - identified variously with the bubonic plague, anthrax, or a package of epidemic diseases - rom China to Europe.
How many people did the Black Death kill?
Between 1346 and 1348 up to half of the population of 'Europe perished from the plague.
What did the Italian writer Boccaccio write about the Black Death?
"A dead man, was then of no more account that a dead goat."
How did the people benefit from the Black Death?
Tenant farmers and urban workers, now in short supply, could demand higher wages or better terms, Some landowning nobles on the other hand, were badly hurt as the price of their grains dropped and the demands of their dependents grew.
How did the Silk Roads link Eurasia?
It linked Eurasian societies by land, sea-based trade routes like-wise connected distant peoples all across the Eastern Hemisphere.
What Italian city emerged by 1000 C.E. and was a major what?
The Italian city of Venice emerged as a major center of that commercial network, with its ships and merchants active in the Mediterranean and Black sea as well as well as on the Atlantic coast.
Until the creation of a genuinely global oceanic system of trade after 1500, which represented the world's largest sea-based system of communication and exchange, stretching from southern China to Eastern Africa.
Indian Ocean trade
What goods were desired from different countries?
Such as porcelain from China, spices from the islands of Southeast Asia, cotton goods and pepper from India, ivory and gold from the East African coast, incense from Southern Arabia - provided incentives for Indian Ocean Commerce
What were the more transoceanic trade routes called that were kind of like the Silk Roads?
the Sea Roads
How were the Sea Roads different from the Silk Roads?
The Sea Roads could eventually carry more bulk goods and products destined for mass market - textiles, pepper, timber, rice, sugar, wheat - whereas the Silk Roads were limited largely to luxury goods for the few.
What made Indian Ocean commerce possible?
the monsoons, alternating wind currents that blew predictably northeast during the summer months and southwest during the winter