Flashcards in Untitled spreadsheet - Sheet1 Deck (146):
Who thought that: "Industrialization is, I am afraid, going to be a curse for mankind...God forbid that India should ever take to industrialism...The economic imperialism... [of] England is today  keeping the world in chains."?
the famous Indian nationalist and spiritual leader Mahatma Gandhi
Who led his country to independence from British colonial rule by 1947?
Mahatma Gandhi led India
When did the Industrial take place?
in the century and a half between 1750 and 1900
What energy resources derived from outside of the biosphere?
coal, oil, gas, and the nucleus of atoms
Where did the Industrial Revolution begin, which was independent of others?
in Western Europe, more specifically Great Britain
How did the human population increase in the early 19th century from its 375 million people in 1400?
increased to about 1 billion people
What were the nonrenewable fossil fuels that were now used?
coal, oil, and natural gas
What renewable energy sources were replaced by the nonrenewable fossil fuels?
wind, water, wood, and the muscle power of people and animals
What also sustained the Industrial Revolution that came from the islands off the coast of Peru and another in South America and Pacific Oceania?
guano, or seabird excrement; and nitrates and phosphates
IN 1858, what river running through London smelled so bad that the British House of Commons had to suspend its session?
the Thames River
What romantic poets inveighed against the "dark satanic mills" of industrial England and nostalgically urged a return to the "green and pleasant land" of an earlier time?
William Blake and William Wordsworth
The Industrial Revolution marked a new era in both human history and the history of the planet that scientists increasingly call what?
the Anthropocene, or the "age of man"
In Britain, where the Industrial Revolution began, how much did the industrial output increase by between 1750 and 1900?
What technological innovations, which was not simply what inventions, but a "culture of innovation?"
the spinning jenny, power loom, steam engine, or cotton gin
IN the 18th century, Britain, was focused in innovations in what?
in textile production
What was the great breakthrough of the Industrial Revolution for Britain, that provided an inanimate and almost limitless source of power beyond that of wind, water, or muscle, and could drive any number of machines as well as locomotives and oceangoing ships?
coal-fired steam engine
The Industrial Revolution spread beyond the textile industry to what?
to iron and steel production, railroads and steamships, food processing, and construction
In the 19th century, what took place that was focused on chemicals, electricity, precision machinery, the telegraph and telephone, rubber, printing, and much more?
a so called second Industrial Revolution
What innovations affected agriculture from the ancient ways?
mechanical reapers, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and refrigeration
What system in the U.S. encouraged invention and was very influential to our development?
the patent system
What patent in the U.S. grew from 5 per year before 1840 to 30 to 40 per year by end of the century?
What new industries emerged because oil, natural gas, and nuclear reactions became more available?
in automobiles, airplanes, consumer durable goods, electronics, computers, etc.
What was one theory to why the Industrial Revolution began in Britain but was later disproved?
It argued that Europeans have been distinguished for several thousand years by restless, creative, and freedom-loving culture with its roots in the aristocratic warlike societies of early Indo-European invaders
Between 750 and 1100 C.E., what people generated major advances in shipbuilding, the use of tides and falling water to generate power, papermaking, textile production, chemical technologies, water mills, clocks, and much more?
the Islamic world
What place had long been the center of cotton textile production, the first place to turn sugarcane juice into crystallized sugar, and the source of many agricultural innovations and mathematical inventions?
To the Arabs of the 9th century, India was what?
a "place of marvels"
What country was clearly the world leader in tech innovations between 700 and 1400 C.E., prompting various scholars to suggest that they were on the edge of an industrial revolution by 1200 or so?
What did Europe not enjoy as late as 1750?
Europe did not enjoy any overall economic advantage; saying that innovation started around the same time, "economic parity"
What is one reason why Industrialization began in Europe?
its many small and highly competitive states, taking shape in the 12 or 13 centuries, arguably provided an "insurance against economic and technological stagnation
What is another reason why Industrialization began in Europe?
the relative newness of these European states and their monarchs' desperate need for revenue in the absense of an effective tax-collecting bureaucracy pushed European royals into unusual alliance with their merchant classes
In what countries did merchants actually control the state?
in Venice and Holland
What was Europe on their way toward before they experienced industrialization?
toward capitalist economies - where buying and selling on the market was a widely established practice
After 1500, how was Western Europe unique?
that region alone "found itself at the hub of the largest and most varied network of exchange in history."
What did the German philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz encourage the Jesuit missionaries in China to do?
not to worry so much about getting things European to the Chinese but rather about getting remarkable Chinese inventions to us.
Where did the Europeans find a windfall of silver that allowed them to operate in Asian markets?
The popularity of what prompted imitation and innovation in England, France, and Holland?
Chinese porcelain and Japanese lacquerware
What country was the most highly commercialized of Europe's larger countires with imperial possessions in the Caribbean, in North America, and in India?
A series of what agricultural innovations increased agricultural output, kept food prices low, and freed up labor from the countryside?
crop rotation, selective breeding of animals, lighter plows, higher-yielding seeds
What did the disappearence by the 18th century of guilds allow?
it allowed employers to run their manufacturing enterprises as they saw fit
What country, the earliest beneficiary of American wealth, was one of the slowest-industrializing European countries into the 20th century?
What did the British government do that helped all of Britain?
with laws that made it easy to form companies and to forbid workers' unions, with roads and canals that helped create a unified internal market, and with patent laws that served to protect the interests of inventors
What provided a freer arena for private enterprise than elsewhere in Europe?
Checks on royal prerogative - trial by jury and the growing authority of Parliament
What association of "natural philosophers" (scientists) established in 1660, saw its role as promoting "useful knowledge."
The British Royal Society
What did the British Royal Society establish?
mechanics' libraries, published broadsheets and pamphlets on recent scientific advances, and held frequent public lectures and demonstrations
What was British science concerned with?
observation, experiment, precise measurements, mechanical devices, and practical commercfial applications
What did Britain have a ready supply of that contributed something to Britain's Industrial Revolution?
the countries ready supply of coal and iron ore, located close to each other and within reach of major industrial centers
Although Britain fought against Napoleon, what helped to keep them from invasions that so many continental European states exeperienced during the era of the French Revolution?
the country's island location protected it from the kind of invasions
The British textile industry, which used 52 million pounds of cotton in 1800, consumed how many pounds in 1850?
588 million pounds
Britain's coal output soared from 5.23 million tons in 1750 to what a century later?
68.4 million tons
IN Britain, agriculture generated only 8 percent of national income in 1891 and employed fewer than what percentage of workers in 1914?
8 percent of working Britons
How did industrialization treat many people?
for many it was an enormously painful, even traumatic process, full of social conflict, insecurity, and false starts as well as new opportunities
Which dominant class in Britain declined as a result of the Industrial Revolution, and was demonstrated in the 1840s, when high tariffs on foreign agricultural imports were finally abolished?
the British aristocracy
How did the aristocracy feel about the empire?
described as a "system of outdoor relief for the aristocracy," the empire provided a cushion for a declining class
What social class benefited the most from industrialization?
the middle class
What people were at the top of the middle class?
wealthy factory and mine owners, bankers, and merchants
What occupations were very numerous among the middle class?
smaller businessmen, doctors, lawyers, engineers, teachers, journalists, scientists, and other professionals
What did the middle class favor?
they were liberals, favoring constitutional government, private property, free trade, and social reform within limits, their agitation resulted in the Reform Bill of 1832, which broadened the right to vote to many men of the middle class
The central value of "respectability," was displayed in what famous book by the Scotsman Samuel Smiles, published in 1859?
What were women expected to be?
the moral centers of family life, the educators of "respectability," and the managers of household consumption as "shopping"- a new concept in eighteenth-century Britain common for middle class
Who wrote the with her husband as "provider," such a woman was now a "lady." "She must not work for profit?"
Englishwoman Margaretta Greg in 1853
What people represented 70 percent of Britain's population in the 19th century?
the manual workers in the mines, ports, factories, construction sites, workshops, and farms
Liverpool's population alone grew from 77,000 to what in the first half the 19th century?
What city was the largest in the world by the end of the century?
London with more than 6 million inhabitants
By 1850 what was the average life expectancy in England?
What people engaged in industrial work or found jobs as domestic servants for upper- and middle-class families to supplement meager family incomes?
many girls and young women of the laboring classes
What did Robert Owen, a wealthy British cotton textile manufacturer, urge the creation of?
of small industrial communities where workers and their families would be well treated
Who is considered to be the founder of socialism?
When trade unions were legalized in 1824, what happened?
growing numbers of factory workers joined these associations in their efforts to achieve better wages and working conditions
What working-class political party, was established in the 1890s, which advocated a reformist program and a peaceful democratic transition to socialism, largely rejecting the class struggle and revolutionary emphasis of classical Marxism?
the Labour Party
Known as "social democracy" this approach to socialism prominent in Germany in 19th century called themselves what?
What occurred between 1815 and 1939, where 20% of Europe's population, some 50 to 55 million people, who left home for the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and elsewhere?
How many people returned after the exodus back to Europe?
perhaps 7 million returned
In 1800, less than 1% of the total world population consisted of overseas Europeans and their descendants; but by 1930, what was the new percentage?
What particular countires became settler colonies, outposts of European civilization in the South Pacific that overwhelmed their native populations through conquest, acquisition of their lands, and disease?
Australia and New Zealand
By end of 19th century, New Zealand's European population, based on immigration of free people, outnumberd the native Maori how?
by 700,000 to 40,000
Where did smaller numbers of Europeans find their way to, where they injected a sharp racial divide into those colonized territories?
South Africa, Kenya, Rhodesia, Algeria, and elsewhere
What percentage of European migratory stream, mostly from Italy, Spain, and Portugal, found their way to Latin America?
20 Percent, with the other 80 percent being from Argentina and Brazil
How many newcomers arrived in the United States from all over Europe between 1820 and 1930?
What did the United States offer that wasn't widely available in Latin America?
affordable land to many and industrial jobs to many more
The United States turned the immigrant experience into what national myth?
that of the melting pot
Despite this ideology of assimilation, how did the Protestants from Britain and Germany, the earlier immigrants treat others?
they were anything but welcoming to Catholics and Jews from Southern and Eastern Europe who arrived later
How were some of the newcomers seen as?
as distinctly inferior, even "un-American," and blamed for crime, labor unrest, and socialist ideas
After the freeing of the serfs in 1861 in Russia, how many Russians and Ukrainians migrated to Siberia?
13 million, with Siberians totaling only 10 percent of that region's population at end of century
What facilitated the continued Europeanization of Siberia?
the availability of land, the prospect of greater freedom from tsarist restrictions and from the exploitation of aristocratic landowners, and the construction of the trans-Siberian railroad
Where did the Industrial Revolution spread to as it was no longer confined in Britain?
to continental Western Europe and by end of the 19th century to the United States, Russia, and Japan
Class structure changed as which groups declined, while the middle classes and a factory working class grew in numbers and social prominence?
while aristocrats, artisans, and peasants declined
How did French industrialization compare to Britain industrialization?
it occured more slowly and perhaps less disruptively than Britains
What did Germany focus on initially in their industrialization?
on heavy industry-iron, steel, and coal-rather than on the textile industry with which Britain had begun
What did the German industrialization do more of than in Britain?
far more highly concentrated in huge companies called cartels, and it generated a rather more militant and Marxist-oriented labor movement
What two countires was the variations in the industrializing process more apparent?
to the west across the Atlantic Ocean was the United States and to the East was Russia
What French observer in the 1830s famously commented on Russia and the US giants in his book Democracy in America?
Alexis de Tocqueville
In what industry did American industrialization begin in?
in the textile factories of New England during the 1820s but grew explosively after the Civil War
What made the United States the world's leading industrial power by 1914?
it's huge size, the ready availability of natural resources, its expanding domestic market, and its relative political stability combined
What percentage of the world's manufactured goods did the United States provide by 1914?
About one-third of the capital investment by the US that financed its remarkable growth came from where?
from British, French, and German capitalists
What things did the U.S. government implement that fostered the rise of very large business enterprises?
tax breaks, huge grants of public land to the railroad companies, laws enabling the easy formation of corporations, and the absence of much overt regulation of industry
What corporation by 1901 had an annual budget three times the size of that of the federal government?
the U.S. Steel Corporation
What techniques did the United States pioneer to produce for a mass market?
using interchangeable parts, the assembly line, and "scientific management"
What did the nation's advertising agencies, Sears Roebuck's and Montgomery Ward's mail-order catalogs, and urban department stores generate?
a middle-class "culture of consumption"
What industrialist in the early 20th century began producing what car at an affordable price for ordinary people, famously declared: "I am going to democratize the automobile."
Henry Ford who began producing the Model T
What American industrialists of fabulous wealth became cultural heroes, widely admired as models of what anyone could achieve with daring and hard work?
Henry Ford, Andrew Carnegie, and John D. Rockefeller
In Carnegie's Homestead steel plant near Pittsburgh, how often did employees work?
every day except Christmas and the Fourth of July, often for twelve hours a day
In Manhattan, where millions of European immigrants disembarked, how did they live?
in five- or six-story buildings with four families and two toilets on each floor
To some the living conditions in the Americas were a betrayal of American ideals, but how did others see it?
as a natural outcome of competition and "the survival of the fittest."
In 1877, when the eastern railroads announced a 10 percent wage cut for their workers what happened?
strikers disrupted rail service across the eastern half of the country, smashed equipment, and rioted
What American union organization focused on skilled workers excluded the more radical unskilled laborers, and its refusal to align with any party limited its influence in the political arena?
the American Federation of Labor
What party at its high point in America garnered just 6 percent of the vote for its presidential candidate in the 1912 election?
the Socialist Party with property owners finding it more attractive
In the 1890s, among small farmers in the U.S. South, West, and Midwest, who railed against banks, industrialists, monopolies, the existing money system, and both major political parties?
What people in the early 20th century, pushed for specific reforms, such as wages-and-hours legislation, better sanitation standards, antitrust laws and greater governmental intervention in the economy?
What came to be defined as fundamentally "un-American" in a country that so valued individualism and so feared "big government?"
At beginning of the 20 century, what did Russia lack?
no national parliament, no legal political parties, and no nationwide elections
Who was at the upper levels of Russian society?
it included great landowners, who furnished the state with military officers and leading government officials
Until 1861, what were most Russians?
were peasant serfs, bound to the estates of their masters, subject to sale, greatly exploited, and largely at the mercy of their owners
Many nobles in Russia were highly westernized, some speaking French better than Russian, wheras their serfs were what?
steeped in a backwoods Orthodox Christianity that incorporated pre-Christian spirits, spells, curses and magic
Russia's efforts to catch up is kind of "_______ _____ _____" found an early expression in the reign of Peter the Great?
transformation from above
Why were the serfs freed in 1861, in Russia?
it was an action stimulated by military defeat at the hands of British and French forces in the Crimean War
What was Russia's Industrial Revolution focused on in the 1890s?
on railroads and heavy industry and was fueled by a substantial amount of foreign investment
By 1900, how did Russia rank in steel production and along with their major industries in coal, textiles, and oil?
Where were Russian industrial enterprises concentrated in?
Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Kiev
What percentage of Russia's total population was factory workers?
5 percent, and they developed a radical class consciousness, based on harsh conditions
By 1897, what percentage of the population in Moscow and St. Petersburg were recent migrants from the rural areas?
Until 1897, what type of work day was common in Russian, while ruthless discipline and overt disrespect from supervisors created resentment?
13-hour working days
In the brutal conditions in Russia, a small but growing number of educated Russians found in _____ ______ a way of understanding the changes they witnessed daily as well as hope for the future in a revolutionary upheaval of workers.
In 1898, what illegal party, created by workers, quickly became involved in workers' education, union organizing, and eventually, revolutionary action?
Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party
In 1905, Russia, defeated by who in naval war, erupted in spontaneous insurrection?
Workers in Moscow and St. Petersburg went on strike and created their own representative councils called what?
In 1905, what did the tsar's regime have to grant?
a constitution, legalized both trade unions and political parties, and permitted the election of a national assembly, called the Duma
In 1914, how many workers, representing about 40 percent of the entire industrial workforce, went out on strike?
What wars hardships coupled with the immense social tensions of industrialization within a still-autocratic political system, sparked the Russian Revolution of 1917?
World War I
The Russian Revolution of 1917 quickly brought to power the most radical of the socialist groups operating in Russian known as what?
the Bolsheviks, led by the charismatic Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known as Lenin
Who were the Bolsheviks led by?
by Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known as Lenin
What party, inspired by the teachings of Karl Marx, was able to seize power in Russia, thus launching the modern world's first socialist society, with enormous implications for the 20 century?
a socialist political party
The four major administrative units (viceroyalties) of Spanish America ultimately dissolved into how many separate countries, and regional revolts wracked Brazil in the early decades of its independent life
A number of international wars like what in the post-independence century likewise shook these new nations?
Peru and Bolivia united then broke apart in bitter conflict; Mexico lost huge territories to the United States; and an alliance of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay went to war with Paraquay in a conflict that devasted Persia
Conflicts between these factions, often violent, enabled military strongmen known as what to achieve power as defenders of order and property
What caudillo was president of his country at least nine separate times between 1833 and 1855?
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna of Mexico
The vast majority - blacks, Indians, and many mixed-race people - remained doing what?
working small subsistence farms or laboring in the mines or on the haciendas (plantations) of the well-to-do
What war was a prolonged struggle of the Maya people of Mexico, aimed at cleansing their land of European and mestizo intruders?
the Caste War of Yucatan
The new tech of what cut the sailing time between Britain and Argentina almost in half?
What brought the latest news and fashions of Europe to Latin America?
the underwater telegraph
What is the list of new raw materials flowing out of Latin America?
copper from Chile-a metal for electrical industry; tin from Bolivia- which met the mounting demand for tin cans; and nitrates from Chile and guano (bird droppings) from Peru used as fertilizer
What also was in great demand out of Latin America?
wild rubber from the Amazon rainforest was in great demand for bikes and tires, as was sisal from Mexico, used to make binder twine for the proliferating mechanical harvesters
What also was in great demand out of Latin America?
Bananas from Central America, beef from Argentina, cacao from eCuador, coffee from Brazil and Guatemala, and sugar from Cuba
In early 20 century, middle-class reformers joined with workers and peasant to overthrow the long dictatorship of who in Mexico?
What were two of the leaders of the huge peasant armies that helped overthrow Diaz?
Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata