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Flashcards in Chapter 17 Deck (46):
1

Define Antibody

the proteinaceous substance made by specialized lymphocytes in response to antigen

2

Define Antigen

Organisms of substances that provoke immune system to produce antibodies or cell mediated immunity

3

What are two examples of naturally acquired immunity?

active immunity and passive immunity

4

What is an example of an artificially acquired immunity?

a vaccine

5

What is an example of a serum protein?

Gamma Globulin

6

What does the humoral immune system produce?

antibodies

7

What is the name for the Y shaped defensive protein?

antibody

8

One peptoglycan can contain more than ___ antigen.

one

9

There are __ different antigenic determinants on one ________.

5, protein

10

What are the 5 Immunoglobulin classes?

IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE

11

What is the function of IgG?

neutralization of organisms and toxins

12

What is the function of IgD?

regulatory role

13

What is the function of IgE?

monometer (allergic reactions)

14

What is the function of IgA?

protects murosal surface, respiratory, urogenital, intestinal, conjuction

15

What is the function of IgM?

used for diagnosis in aggluntination reactions.

16

The body produces antibodies ____ days after exposure.

4-5

17

What produces all WBC's?

The mother stem cell.

18

What are some of the T cell dependent antigens?

bacteria, foreign RBC's, proteins

19

What does agglutination do?

reduces number of infectious units to be dealt with.

20

Differentiate between B and T cells.

B cells are humoral and cell mediated. T cells are made in the thymus.

21

What do T Lymphocytes kill?

abnormal cells that show the flag because they're abnormal

22

What might elevated Eusinophils indicate?

parasite infection or allergic reaction

23

Define self tolerance.

differentiation between self and nonself.

24

What are the 6 things that antigen-antibody binding and results lead to?

1. Agglutination
2. Opsonization
3. Activation of complement
4. Enhanced inflammation
5. Antibody mediation
6. Neutralization

25

Agglutination

easy phagocytosis and antigen destroyed

26

Opsonization

leads to enhanced phagocytosis and antigen destruction

27

Activation of complement

leads to Cytolysis

28

Enhanced inflammation

antigen destruction

29

Antibody mediated

cell mediated cytotoxicity; destruction of cells and large parasites by non specific immune system.

30

Neutralization

Neutralization of bacteria, protozoa, viruses, and toxins

31

Define Cytolysis

the destruction of a cell

32

What 3 things is the monoclonal antibody used for?

1. Diagnostic use
2. Cancer treatment
3. Recombinant monoclonal

33

What is cell mediated immunity?

immunity resulting from a cell-mediated immune response; cellular immunity

34

What are the 4 types of T cells?

1. Helper (TH) cells
2. Delayed hypersensitivity T (TD) cells
3. Suppressor TR (T3) cells
4. Cytotoxic T (TC) Cells**

35

The Helper (TH) cell helps ___________.

The B Lymphocyte

36

The Delayed hypersensitivity T (TD) cells produce what?

chemical hormones that boost immune system.

37

The Suppressor TR (T3) cells program ____________.

plasma cells to die.

38

What do the Cytotoxic T (TC) cells do?

attach to cells hiding inside and kill them.

39

What is herd immunity?

When they vaccinate 95% of the herd so that if the other 5% gets infected it can't cause all of the herd to be infected.

40

What are the two examples of Toxoid vaccines?

Diphtheria, Tetanus

41

What are examples of inactivated vaccines?

Rabies, polio, influenza, salmonella typhi

42

What are the examples of live (attenuated) vaccines?

yellow fever, measles, mumps, rubella

43

What is an example of a subunit vaccine?

Recombinent DNA, Hep B

44

What are the limitations of the subunit vaccine?

protozoa and parasites, giardia, trypanosomes, AIDS virus

45

What is the conjugated vaccine?

polysaccharide + protein toxins (stronger together)

46

What is the nucleic acid vaccine for?

viruses; highly mutating organisms such as cancer, HIV, influenza