Chapter 25 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 25 Deck (79):
1

What is the route of transmission for microbial diseases of the digestive system?

fecal oral route

2

What is included in the GI tract?

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

3

What is included in the Accessory organs?

teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, pancreas

4

Where is the main place normal flora is found?

In large intestine, like E. coli

5

What is Dental Caries?

tooth decay

6

What bacteria causes dental caries?

S. mutans

7

What causes plaque?

an accumulation of microorganisms

8

What are treatments for cavities?

penicillin, root canal if necessary

9

How can you prevent cavities?

brushing, flossing, getting regular professional dental cleanings

10

What is Peridontal Disease?

inflammation and degeneration of structures that support the teeth.

11

Define Gingivitis.

inflammation of the gums (typically more superficial); common symptom is bleeding while brushing teeth

12

Define Periodontitis.

chronic Gingivitis that leads to tooth loss at an older age.

13

*Infection*
(lower digestive system)

colonization, penetration, and multiplication of microorganisms in intestinal mucose cell; may be enterotoxins; may be septicemia; S. typhi; E. coli

14

*Intoxication*
(lower digestive system)

preformed toxin, ingested, S. aureus; sudden diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting

15

What causes Staphylococcal food poisoning?

Staphylococcus aureus

16

How can you kill the toxin in Staphylococcal food poisoning?

heat stable; boil for 30 mins

17

What is the incubation period for Staphylococcal food poisoning?

1-6 hrs

18

What are the symptom of Staphylococcal food poisoning?

nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

19

Staphylococcal food poisoning is self limiting meaning....

it goes away on it's own after 24 hrs.

20

All Salmonella are considered ___________.

pathogenic

21

There are ____ types of Salmonella.

2543

22

What kind of food is Salmonella gotten from?

meat products, eggs

23

__ degrees Celsius destroys all Salmonella organisms.

68

24

Typhoid fever is caused by what?

Salmonella typhi

25

How can Typhoid fever be prevented?

proper sewage treatment (not often found in developed countries)

26

What is the treatment for Typhoid fever?

3rd generation Cephalosporins

27

What bacteria is causes Bacillary Dyscentery?

Shigella dyscentery

28

What is the main difference between diarrhea and dyscentery?

diarrhea- watery feces
dyscentery- mucousy, bloody feces

29

What causes Cholera?

Vibriocholerae; a Gram - curved rod.

30

In Cholera an __________ is produced.

enterotoxin

31

What is the treatment for Cholera?

rehydration and Tetracycline

32

What is the mortality rate if Cholera goes untreated?

50%

33

What is Vibrio Parahemolyticus Gastroenteritis?

Seafood borne food poisoning

34

What are symptoms of Vibrio Parahemolyticus Gastroenteritis?

abdominal pain, vomiting, stomach burning, watery stool

35

What is Vibrio Vulnificus?

Seafood borne illness also, 50% death rate

36

*List the 5 pathogenic E. Coli*

1. Enterotoxigenic E. Coli
2. Enteroinvasive E. Coli
3. Enteropathogenic E. Coli
4. Enterohemorrhagic E. Coli
5. Attaching Effacing E. Coli

37

Why is Enterohemorrhagic E. coli so serious?

Because it contains verotoxins which kills kidney cells.

38

50-60% of pathogenic E. Coli is Primary Traveller's Diarrhea, also called?

Enterotoxigenic E. Coli

39

What two kinds of E. Coli are often found in small children?

1. Enteroinvasive E. Coli
2. Enteropathogenic E. Coli

40

How can pathogenic E. Coli be prevented?

sanitation, water treatment

41

What does Helicobacter Pylori cause?

stomach ulcers and stomach cancer

42

Yersinia enterocolilica gastroenteritis has a gram __ rod.

negative

43

Clostridium perfringens is what?

gram + , sporing, rod, anaerobic

44

Type A enterotoxin is...

meat borne

45

Mumps is caused by what RNA virus?

Paramyxovirus

46

What is the mode of transmission for Mumps?

respiratory

47

What is the incubation period of Mumps?

16-18 days

48

What are the symptoms of Mumps?

fever, swelling of parotid glands, painful swallowing, sterility in both males and females

49

How can Mumps be prevented?

with the MMR vaccine

50

What family is Hepatitis in?

the enterovirus family

51

Hepatitis A is an RNA virus that is...

an infectious hepatitis

52

What is the route of transmission for hepatitis A?

fecal-oral route

53

What is the Incubation Period for Hepatitis A?

2-3 weeks

54

Is there a vaccine for Hepatitis A?

Yes

55

What is Hepatitis B?

A milder, enveloped, DNA virus

56

What is the mode of transmission for Hep B?

blood or bodily fluid transfer

57

What are the Symptoms of Hep B?
(same as Hep A)

anorexia, malaise, nausea, diarrhea, abd. discomfort, fever, chills, jaundice

58

Is there a vaccine for Hep B?

Yes

59

Hep B causes what type of cancer?

liver cancer

60

Hepatitis C is the most serious of the 3 and is what?

A single stranded RNA virus

61

What is the mode of transmission for Hep C?

blood transfusion, IV drug use, occupational

62

What is Rotavirus?

a double stranded RNA virus

63

Rotavirus is most common among...

those under 1 year of age

64

What are symptoms of Rotavirus?

diarrhea, low fever, vomiting

65

What are the treatments for Rotavirus?

rehydration, and a vaccination

66

What is Norovirus?

Norwalk Agent Gastroenteritis; causes adult diarrhea; but also found in children

67

What protozoa is responsible for Giardiasis?

Giardia lamblia

68

What is the mode of transmission for Giardiasis?

waterborne

69

What is the reservoir for Giardiasis?

Beavers

70

What are symptoms of Giardiasis?

prolonged diarrhea, nausea, flatulence, weight loss, cramps

71

What causes Amoebic dyscentery?

Entamoeba histolytica

72

What serious symptom can happen in Amoebic dyscentery?

may cause intestinal wall perforation

73

What causes Cryptosporidiosis?

Cryptosporidium parvum

74

What is the mode of transmission for Cryptosporidiosis?

water borne

75

What are reservoirs for Cryptosporidiosis?

calves

76

Cryptosporidiosis are....

zoonotic

77

Beef tapeworm

Taenia saginata

78

Pork tapeworm

Taenia solium

79

What 3 kinds of worms are caused by Nematods infections?

1. pinworms
2. hookworms
3. ascariasis