Chapter 19 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 19 Deck (63):
1

What are some of the harmful effects of disorders associated with the immune system?

Allergies, transplant rejection, autoimmune diseases, immune escape-cancer

2

What is the most important harmful effect?

Allergies

3

What is an allergy?

A sensitivity beyond normal

4

What are the 4 types of Hypersensitivity?

1. Type 1: Anaphylaxis Reactions
2. Type 2: Cytotoxic Reactions
3. Type 3: Immune Complex Reactions
4. Type 4: Cell Mediated Reactions

5

Anaphylaxis causes what kind of antibody?

IgE

6

Which WBC is involved with Anaphylaxis?

Basophil

7

What 3 things are released during an Anaphylactic Reaction?

1. Histamine (most important)
2. Leukotrines
3. Prostaglandins

8

Name two things that can cause Systemic Anaphylaxis.

1. Drugs (ex. Penicillin)
2. Insect Venums

9

Name two things that can cause Localized Anaphylaxis.

1. Pollen
2. Foods (ex. fish)

10

Define Desensitization.

A series of antigen doses carefully injected beneath the skin to cause IgG production.

11

What is an example of something that can cause a Cytotoxic Reaction?

Someone being given the wrong blood type in a blood transfusion.

12

During a Cytotoxic Reaction antibodies against ______ are produced and bind to the target cell.

antigen

13

After antibodies bind to the target cell (in a cytotoxic rxn) what happens?

They are complement fixed and the target cell is destroyed.

14

What is hyperthyroidism also known as?

Grave's Disease

15

In an Immune Complex Reaction antibodies are produced against _______ in serum.

Soluble antigen

16

After antibodies are produced against the soluble antigen in serum what happens? (in immune complex reaction)

they form a complex and get deposited into organs. They then cause inflammatory damage complement.

17

What does the "loss of immunological tolerance" indicate?

that the immune system has lost it's ability to discriminate between self and non self.

18

What two fetal immune lymphocytes work against the self antigen and are destroyed?

T and B Lymphocytes

19

List 3 immunosuppressant drugs.

1. Cyclosporin
2. Tacyolimus
3. Rapamycin

20

What are the 4 types of transplants?

1. Autografts
2. Isografts
3. Allografts
4. Xenografts

21

What are Autografts?

self tissue or organs transplants

22

What are Isografts?

identical twins transplants

23

What are Allografts?

different persons transplants

24

What are Xenografts?

different species transplants

25

What is an example of a cell mediated reaction?

Delayed Type Hypersensitivity (DTH; as is done with the TB test)

26

What are a few things that can cause Allergic Contact Dermatitis?

Poison Ivy, Cosmetics, Jewelry, Glove Powder

27

What are the two types of Immune Deficiencies?

1. Congenital (ADA; genetic)
2. Acquired (HIV-AIDS)

28

Where did HIV originate?

Central Africa

29

What was the chain of transmission for HIV?

Monkeys---->Chimpanzees--->Humans

30

What is the prevalence of HIV worldwide?

33-34 million people worldwide

31

Is HIV a DNA or an RNA virus?

RNA

32

HIV infects which two receptors?

CD4 and CXC R4

33

The CD4 receptor contains ___ Lymphocytes.

T

34

The 2nd receptor known as CXC R4 is also called the ______ receptor.

kemakine

35

When HIV infects the CD4-T Lymphocytes what does this do?

enhances programmed cell death

36

What other two WBC's are infected?

Macrophages and B-Lymphocytes

37

What key thing do the HIV infected cells not show on their surface?

a marker

38

During the stages of infection, Category C includes what?

CD4 Tcell count

39

An opportunistic infection during the Category C stage of infection can be serious and ________.

Fatal

40

What test is used to detect HIV antibodies?

ELISA test

41

What testing is used to confirm an HIV diagnosis?

Western Blot and/or Real Time PCR

42

What are some of the modes of transmission for HIV?

Bodily fluid exchange, contaminated needle pricks, both homosexual and heterosexual contact (though homosexual involves a higher risk), the reusing of needles in underdeveloped countries, pregnant mother to baby

43

Can an insect transport HIV? Why or why not?

No, they can't transport enough of the virus to infect a human

44

What drug can reduce the risk of a pregnant mother transmitting HIV to her baby down from a 30-35% chance to a 0% chance?

Zidovudine (AZT)

45

Is there a vaccine for HIV?

No, the high virus mutation makes it impossible to make one.

46

What is the most effective treatment for HIV?

a 3 drug combination treatment

47

What are the 5 types of drugs and used to treat HIV?

1. entry and fusion inhibitors
2. non nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors
3. nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
4. protease inhibitors (block proteins from cutting)
5. integrase inhibitors

48

What is the risk of HIV infection to health care workers?

1:10

49

What two main things are involved in the immune response to cancer?

antigen shedding
antigen suppression

50

What is antigen shedding?

shedding their flag marker

51

What is antigen suppression?

immune suppression

52

Antibiotcs are produced by what?

fungus

53

Bacillus sp and Streptomyces sp are both sources of antibiotics that are G __ bacteria.

+

54

Bacillus sp produces?

Bacitracin and Polymyxin

55

Streptomyces sp produces?

amphotericin B, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, erythromycin, neomycin, nystatin, streptomycin, gentamycin

56

What is the purpose of antimicrobial treatment?

No new bacterial production

57

Fungi produces?

Cephalosporium and Penicillium sp

58

Penicillium sp creates what two medicines?

Penicillin and Griseofulvin (antifungal used for ringworm)

59

What 4 things are involved in the selection and evaluation of drugs?

1. demonstrate selective toxicity
2. not produce hypersensitivity
3. soluble in body fluids
4. note lead to microbial drug resistance

60

Narrow spectrum drugs treat what?

only gram + bacteria (example: penicillin)

61

Broad spectrum drugs can treat what?

both gram + and gram - bacterias (example: Gentamycin)

62

What is an example of a superinfection that might need antibiotic treatment?

candida albicans

63

What is genetic resistance?

Will update with answer when I can find it.