Flashcards in Chapter 19 Deck (63):
What are some of the harmful effects of disorders associated with the immune system?
Allergies, transplant rejection, autoimmune diseases, immune escape-cancer
What is the most important harmful effect?
What is an allergy?
A sensitivity beyond normal
What are the 4 types of Hypersensitivity?
1. Type 1: Anaphylaxis Reactions
2. Type 2: Cytotoxic Reactions
3. Type 3: Immune Complex Reactions
4. Type 4: Cell Mediated Reactions
Anaphylaxis causes what kind of antibody?
Which WBC is involved with Anaphylaxis?
What 3 things are released during an Anaphylactic Reaction?
1. Histamine (most important)
Name two things that can cause Systemic Anaphylaxis.
1. Drugs (ex. Penicillin)
2. Insect Venums
Name two things that can cause Localized Anaphylaxis.
2. Foods (ex. fish)
A series of antigen doses carefully injected beneath the skin to cause IgG production.
What is an example of something that can cause a Cytotoxic Reaction?
Someone being given the wrong blood type in a blood transfusion.
During a Cytotoxic Reaction antibodies against ______ are produced and bind to the target cell.
After antibodies bind to the target cell (in a cytotoxic rxn) what happens?
They are complement fixed and the target cell is destroyed.
What is hyperthyroidism also known as?
In an Immune Complex Reaction antibodies are produced against _______ in serum.
After antibodies are produced against the soluble antigen in serum what happens? (in immune complex reaction)
they form a complex and get deposited into organs. They then cause inflammatory damage complement.
What does the "loss of immunological tolerance" indicate?
that the immune system has lost it's ability to discriminate between self and non self.
What two fetal immune lymphocytes work against the self antigen and are destroyed?
T and B Lymphocytes
List 3 immunosuppressant drugs.
What are the 4 types of transplants?
What are Autografts?
self tissue or organs transplants
What are Isografts?
identical twins transplants
What are Allografts?
different persons transplants
What are Xenografts?
different species transplants
What is an example of a cell mediated reaction?
Delayed Type Hypersensitivity (DTH; as is done with the TB test)
What are a few things that can cause Allergic Contact Dermatitis?
Poison Ivy, Cosmetics, Jewelry, Glove Powder
What are the two types of Immune Deficiencies?
1. Congenital (ADA; genetic)
2. Acquired (HIV-AIDS)
Where did HIV originate?
What was the chain of transmission for HIV?
What is the prevalence of HIV worldwide?
33-34 million people worldwide
Is HIV a DNA or an RNA virus?
HIV infects which two receptors?
CD4 and CXC R4
The CD4 receptor contains ___ Lymphocytes.
The 2nd receptor known as CXC R4 is also called the ______ receptor.
When HIV infects the CD4-T Lymphocytes what does this do?
enhances programmed cell death
What other two WBC's are infected?
Macrophages and B-Lymphocytes
What key thing do the HIV infected cells not show on their surface?
During the stages of infection, Category C includes what?
CD4 Tcell count
An opportunistic infection during the Category C stage of infection can be serious and ________.
What test is used to detect HIV antibodies?
What testing is used to confirm an HIV diagnosis?
Western Blot and/or Real Time PCR
What are some of the modes of transmission for HIV?
Bodily fluid exchange, contaminated needle pricks, both homosexual and heterosexual contact (though homosexual involves a higher risk), the reusing of needles in underdeveloped countries, pregnant mother to baby
Can an insect transport HIV? Why or why not?
No, they can't transport enough of the virus to infect a human
What drug can reduce the risk of a pregnant mother transmitting HIV to her baby down from a 30-35% chance to a 0% chance?
Is there a vaccine for HIV?
No, the high virus mutation makes it impossible to make one.
What is the most effective treatment for HIV?
a 3 drug combination treatment
What are the 5 types of drugs and used to treat HIV?
1. entry and fusion inhibitors
2. non nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors
3. nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
4. protease inhibitors (block proteins from cutting)
5. integrase inhibitors
What is the risk of HIV infection to health care workers?
What two main things are involved in the immune response to cancer?
What is antigen shedding?
shedding their flag marker
What is antigen suppression?
Antibiotcs are produced by what?
Bacillus sp and Streptomyces sp are both sources of antibiotics that are G __ bacteria.
Bacillus sp produces?
Bacitracin and Polymyxin
Streptomyces sp produces?
amphotericin B, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, erythromycin, neomycin, nystatin, streptomycin, gentamycin
What is the purpose of antimicrobial treatment?
No new bacterial production
Cephalosporium and Penicillium sp
Penicillium sp creates what two medicines?
Penicillin and Griseofulvin (antifungal used for ringworm)
What 4 things are involved in the selection and evaluation of drugs?
1. demonstrate selective toxicity
2. not produce hypersensitivity
3. soluble in body fluids
4. note lead to microbial drug resistance
Narrow spectrum drugs treat what?
only gram + bacteria (example: penicillin)
Broad spectrum drugs can treat what?
both gram + and gram - bacterias (example: Gentamycin)
What is an example of a superinfection that might need antibiotic treatment?