Flashcards in Chapter 24 Deck (77):
What is the major portal of entry for microbial diseases of the respiratory system?
the respiratory tract
What are the 2 modes of transmission for microbial diseases of the respiratory system?
1. droplet method
2. direct contact
What is included in the upper respiratory tract?
(try to remember at least 2)
nose, throat, tonsils, adenoids, middle ear, eustachiontubes, sinus ducts, lacrimal ducts, mucous membranes, cilia
What is included in the lower respiratory tract? (try to remember at least 2)
larynx, trachea, bronchi, broncheoles, alveoli, pleura, pleural cavity, alveolar macrophages, cilia
What is Pharyngitis?
inflammation of mucous membranes in the throat (sore throat)
What is Laryngitis?
difficulty with speaking; can be caused by Strep pneumoniae or S. pyogenes
What is Tonsillitis?
a disease of the upper respiratory system
What can cause Sinusitis?
S. pneumoniae, H. influenza, mucous membrane infection
What can cause Epiglottitis?
H. influenza; very serious disease that can cause death within a few hours.
What infection causes Streptococcal Pharyngititis?
Strep throat is caused by what bacteria?
Streptococcus pyogenes; gram +
What are symptoms of Streptococcal Pharyngititis?
fever, sore throat, tonsillitis, swollen lymph nodes, otitis media.
Streptococcal Pharyngititis is easily treated by what antibiotic?
If Streptococcal Pharyngititis (strep throat) is not treated in childhood it can lead to serious complications as an adult. List 3 of these complications.
2. Rheumatic Fever
What is Scarlet Fever?
a much more serious disease that can e caused by the bacteria S. pyogenes.
In Scarlet Fever what goes into the circulatory system causing a rash throughout the body?
What are some of the symptoms of Scarlet Fever?
reddish rash, high fever, strawberry-like appearance on tongue
What bacteria is responsible for Diphtheria?
Corynebacterium diphtheria; a gram + rod
What are some symptoms of Diphtheria?
general malaise, neck swelling, greyish membranes in throat
In Diphtheria there is an ________ that blocks protein synthesis in any cell it enters.
What vaccine is there for Diphtheria?
What are some medicines that can be used to treat Diphtheria?
Penicillin, erythromycin, (z-pack)
Cutaneous Diphtheria causes a _________ ______.
What bacteria causes Otitis Media?
Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenza, S. pyogenes, S. aureus
What is Otitis Media?
A nose-throat infection
There are ___ types of Rhinoviruses?
_______% of common colds are caused by Rhinovirus.
_____% of common colds are caused by Coronoviruses.
____% of common colds are caused by Adenovirus.
Viral diseases of the upper respiratory system are highly contagious and their mode of transmission is what?
What bacteria is responsible for Whooping Cough (Pertussis)?
Bordetella pertussis; gram - rod
What is the main symptom of whooping cough?
violent coughing, several times a day. Coughing can last 10-30 mins long.
What is the treatment for whooping cough?
Erythromycin; the vaccine is DPT
What bacteria is responsible for Tuberculosis?
The environmental resistance of tuberculosis is high because of what?
How many new cases of TB are diagnosed every year? How many deaths result from TB every year?
8 million new cases
3 million deaths
What is the transmission of TB?
What is DRTB?
extensive drug resistance
What 4 drugs are used to treat TB?
(using a combo of any 2 of these)
What bacteria causes Pneumococcal pneumoniae?
Is there a vaccine for Pneumococcal pneumoniae? If so how often do you need to be vaccinated?
Yes, for elderly. Every 1-2 years.
What is Klebsiella pneumonia?
A bacterial pneumonia caused by the bacteria K. pneumoniae
What is Mycoplasmal pneumonia?
A bacterial pneumonia that is less severe and is therefore often called "walking pneumonia".
What kind of pneumonia is often called walking pneumonia?
What bacteria often causes Legionellosis?
Legionellosis was discovered in what year?
Where is the habitat for L. pneumophila?
water pipes, cooling towers
How is Legionellosis gotten?
What are the symptoms of Legionellosis?
high fever-105 degrees, pneumonia
Legionellosis is an intra amoeba and is ________ resistant.
What bacteria causes Psittacosis (Ornithosis)?
Psittacosis is found in what reservoir?
birds; often in parakeets and parrots
What are the symptoms of Psittacosis?
pneumonia, fever, headache, chills, disorientation, delirium
What is a future complication of Chlamydia pneumoniae?
What is Respiratory Syncitial Virus (HRSV)?
an RNA virus most commonly found in infants
In RSV you can only use antivirals on the infant if what?
their life is at stake as the antivirals are very dangerous for infants.
What is used to treat HRSV?
Ribavirin will lower severity of symptoms
Influenza (Flu) is the most severe viral disease of the lower resp tract and has how many separate pieces of RNA?
The surface of the virus Influenza has 2 proteins, what are they?
What is Hemagglutinin?
spike proteins; protective attachment
What is Neuraminidase for?
detachment or release
What is Antigenic Shift?
Major genetic change in virus that leads to Pandemic
What is Antigenic Drift?
Minor genetic change in virus.
an unusually high occurrence of a disease or illness in a population.
a worldwide occurrence of a disease or illness; starts in 1 continent and can travel to all 6 in weeks.
What 2 things does Hantavirus cause?
1. hemorrhagic fever
What are the 3 Fungal diseases that involve the resp tract?
All 3 fungal diseases are ______.
What is Dimorphic Fungi?
fungi that grows in yeast and mold.
What organism causes Histoplasmosis?
Histoplasmosis is transmitted through?
inhalation of bird (whatever that means)
What 2 fungal diseases are found in the Mississippi valley and Ohio river areas?
Histoplasmosis & Blastomycosis
Coccidomyces is caused by what organism?
Where is Coccidomyces found?
In arid and semi arid areas (areas that get less rain) such as CA and AZ
What are symptoms of Coccidomyces?
mild fever, dry coughing
All 3 fungal diseases can be transmitted from animals to humans, otherwise known as what?