Chapter 24 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 24 Deck (77):
1

What is the major portal of entry for microbial diseases of the respiratory system?

the respiratory tract

2

What are the 2 modes of transmission for microbial diseases of the respiratory system?

1. droplet method
2. direct contact

3

What is included in the upper respiratory tract?
(try to remember at least 2)

nose, throat, tonsils, adenoids, middle ear, eustachiontubes, sinus ducts, lacrimal ducts, mucous membranes, cilia

4

What is included in the lower respiratory tract? (try to remember at least 2)

larynx, trachea, bronchi, broncheoles, alveoli, pleura, pleural cavity, alveolar macrophages, cilia

5

What is Pharyngitis?

inflammation of mucous membranes in the throat (sore throat)

6

What is Laryngitis?

difficulty with speaking; can be caused by Strep pneumoniae or S. pyogenes

7

What is Tonsillitis?

a disease of the upper respiratory system

8

What can cause Sinusitis?

S. pneumoniae, H. influenza, mucous membrane infection

9

What can cause Epiglottitis?

H. influenza; very serious disease that can cause death within a few hours.

10

What infection causes Streptococcal Pharyngititis?

Strep throat

11

Strep throat is caused by what bacteria?

Streptococcus pyogenes; gram +

12

What are symptoms of Streptococcal Pharyngititis?

fever, sore throat, tonsillitis, swollen lymph nodes, otitis media.

13

Streptococcal Pharyngititis is easily treated by what antibiotic?

Amoxicillin

14

If Streptococcal Pharyngititis (strep throat) is not treated in childhood it can lead to serious complications as an adult. List 3 of these complications.

1. Endocarditis
2. Rheumatic Fever
3. Glomerulonephritis

15

What is Scarlet Fever?

a much more serious disease that can e caused by the bacteria S. pyogenes.

16

In Scarlet Fever what goes into the circulatory system causing a rash throughout the body?

Erythrogenic toxin

17

What are some of the symptoms of Scarlet Fever?

reddish rash, high fever, strawberry-like appearance on tongue

18

What bacteria is responsible for Diphtheria?

Corynebacterium diphtheria; a gram + rod

19

What are some symptoms of Diphtheria?

general malaise, neck swelling, greyish membranes in throat

20

In Diphtheria there is an ________ that blocks protein synthesis in any cell it enters.

exotoxin

21

What vaccine is there for Diphtheria?

DPT vaccine

22

What are some medicines that can be used to treat Diphtheria?

Penicillin, erythromycin, (z-pack)

23

Cutaneous Diphtheria causes a _________ ______.

localized lesion

24

What bacteria causes Otitis Media?

Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenza, S. pyogenes, S. aureus

25

What is Otitis Media?

A nose-throat infection

26

There are ___ types of Rhinoviruses?

113

27

_______% of common colds are caused by Rhinovirus.

50-60%

28

_____% of common colds are caused by Coronoviruses.

15-20%

29

____% of common colds are caused by Adenovirus.

10%

30

Viral diseases of the upper respiratory system are highly contagious and their mode of transmission is what?

airborne droplets

31

What bacteria is responsible for Whooping Cough (Pertussis)?

Bordetella pertussis; gram - rod

32

What is the main symptom of whooping cough?

violent coughing, several times a day. Coughing can last 10-30 mins long.

33

What is the treatment for whooping cough?

Erythromycin; the vaccine is DPT

34

What bacteria is responsible for Tuberculosis?

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

35

The environmental resistance of tuberculosis is high because of what?

lipids

36

How many new cases of TB are diagnosed every year? How many deaths result from TB every year?

8 million new cases
3 million deaths

37

What is the transmission of TB?

inhalation

38

What is DRTB?

extensive drug resistance

39

What 4 drugs are used to treat TB?
(using a combo of any 2 of these)

1. Isoniazid
2. Rifampin
3. Streptomycin
4. Ethambutol

40

What bacteria causes Pneumococcal pneumoniae?

S. pneumoniae

41

Is there a vaccine for Pneumococcal pneumoniae? If so how often do you need to be vaccinated?

Yes, for elderly. Every 1-2 years.

42

What is Klebsiella pneumonia?

A bacterial pneumonia caused by the bacteria K. pneumoniae

43

What is Mycoplasmal pneumonia?

A bacterial pneumonia that is less severe and is therefore often called "walking pneumonia".

44

What kind of pneumonia is often called walking pneumonia?

Mycoplasmal pneumonia

45

What bacteria often causes Legionellosis?

L. pneumophila

46

Legionellosis was discovered in what year?

1976

47

Where is the habitat for L. pneumophila?

water pipes, cooling towers

48

How is Legionellosis gotten?

aerosols inhalation

49

What are the symptoms of Legionellosis?

high fever-105 degrees, pneumonia

50

Legionellosis is an intra amoeba and is ________ resistant.

chlorine

51

What bacteria causes Psittacosis (Ornithosis)?

Chlamydia psittacii

52

Psittacosis is found in what reservoir?

birds; often in parakeets and parrots

53

What are the symptoms of Psittacosis?

pneumonia, fever, headache, chills, disorientation, delirium

54

What is a future complication of Chlamydia pneumoniae?

heart diseases

55

What is Respiratory Syncitial Virus (HRSV)?

an RNA virus most commonly found in infants

56

In RSV you can only use antivirals on the infant if what?

their life is at stake as the antivirals are very dangerous for infants.

57

What is used to treat HRSV?

Ribavirin will lower severity of symptoms

58

Influenza (Flu) is the most severe viral disease of the lower resp tract and has how many separate pieces of RNA?

8

59

The surface of the virus Influenza has 2 proteins, what are they?

1. Hemagglutinin
2. Neuraminidase

60

What is Hemagglutinin?

spike proteins; protective attachment

61

What is Neuraminidase for?

detachment or release

62

What is Antigenic Shift?

Major genetic change in virus that leads to Pandemic

63

What is Antigenic Drift?

Minor genetic change in virus.

64

Define Epidemic.

an unusually high occurrence of a disease or illness in a population.

65

Define Pandemic.

a worldwide occurrence of a disease or illness; starts in 1 continent and can travel to all 6 in weeks.

66

What 2 things does Hantavirus cause?

1. hemorrhagic fever
2. pneumonia

67

What are the 3 Fungal diseases that involve the resp tract?

1. Histoplasmosis
2. Coccidomyces
3. Blastomycosis

68

All 3 fungal diseases are ______.

Dimorphic.

69

What is Dimorphic Fungi?

fungi that grows in yeast and mold.

70

What organism causes Histoplasmosis?

Histoplasma capsulatum

71

Histoplasmosis is transmitted through?

inhalation of bird (whatever that means)

72

What 2 fungal diseases are found in the Mississippi valley and Ohio river areas?

Histoplasmosis & Blastomycosis

73

Coccidomyces is caused by what organism?

Coccidioides immitis

74

Where is Coccidomyces found?

In arid and semi arid areas (areas that get less rain) such as CA and AZ

75

What are symptoms of Coccidomyces?

mild fever, dry coughing

76

All 3 fungal diseases can be transmitted from animals to humans, otherwise known as what?

zoonotic

77

What is the most common treatment for all 3 fungal diseases that can involve the resp tract?

Amphoterecin-B