Chapter 23 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 23 Deck (76):
1

Septicemia can be caused by both ____ and ____ bacteria.

Gram -
Gram +

2

In Septicemia, the Gram - bacteria can produce what toxin?

endotoxins

3

In Septicemia, why does the doctor need to know whether the bacteria is gram - or gram +?

In order to determine whether antibiotics will help or worsen the symptoms. (Will worsen if it is gram - as the endotoxins produced can lead to shock, if antibiotics are given)

4

What is Puerperal Sepsis?

childbirth fever

5

Sepsis can cause a bacterial infection within the inner lining of the heart and can lead to destruction of the heart valves. What is this condition called?

Bacterial Endocarditis

6

Bacterial Endocarditis has what kind of bacteria?

Gram - ; can produce endotoxins

7

What does Rheumatic fever cause?

arthritis in older people

8

What bacteria is responsible for Tuleremia?

Francicella tuleresisis; a gram - rod

9

If Francicella tulerosisis gets into your lungs it takes what form?

pneumonic form, which is the most dangerous

10

What is the main reservoir for Tuleremia?

rabbits

11

There is a __% fatality rate if Tuleremia goes untreated.

15

12

Brucellosis is made up of gram __ rods.

negative

13

What are the 3 species in Brucellosis?

1. Brucella abortus (cows)
2. B. melitensis (goats)
3. B. suis (soil)

14

What is the most common of the 3 species in Brucellosis?

B. suis

15

What is the most common mode of transmission for Brucellosis?

ingesting unpasteurized milk

16

What is the most serious of the 3 species in Brucellosis?

B. Melitensis; causes undulant fever

17

Anthrax is caused by what bacteria?

Bacillus anthracis; a Gram + sporing rod

18

What is the main reservoir for Anthrax?

soil

19

What are the modes of transmission for Anthrax?

inhalation, skin contact, ingestion (which can lead to septicemia)

20

Bacillus anthracis have __________, which make them very difficult to kill.

endospores

21

Bacillus anthracis produce ________, making them lethal.

exotoxins

22

Is there a vaccine for Anthrax?

yes; however most treatments are not very effective

23

What bacteria is responsible for Gangrene?

Clostridium perfringens (mostly) ; gram + sporing rods

24

How is most Gangrene gotten?

through frostbite

25

What are some of the treatments for Gangrene?

surgical debridement, antibiotics, oxygen chamber, amputation

26

How is Pasteurella multocida gotten?

through dog or cat bites

27

Is Pasteurella multocida found in humans?

No, not unless it was given by an animal bite

28

Cat Scratch Disease is caused by what bacteria?

Bartonella hensele

29

What bacteria is responsible for the Plague?

Yersinia pestes

30

What is Yersinia pestes?

An enterobacteria, gram - rod, causes the plague

31

What is the main reservoir for the Plague?

Rats

32

What is the vector used in the transmission of the Plague (Yersinia pestes)?

Flea

33

What is the mode of transmission for the Plague bacteria (Yersinia pestes)?

Flea Bite

34

What are the two types of the Plague?

1. Bubonic Plague
2. Pneumonic Plague

35

What two things do you need to know about the Bubonic Plague?

1. It is in the Lymph Nodes
2. Has a 50-75% mortality rate

36

What two things do you need to know about the Pneumonic Plague?

1. Causes Pneumonia
2. Has a 100% mortality rate if untreated

37

What two things are done to diagnose the Plague bacteria?

1. Isolate the bacteria
2. IFA test

38

How can you control the spread of the Plague bacteria, Yersinia pestes?

sanitation, rat control, rat flea control

39

What year was Lyme Disease discovered?

1975

40

Where is Lyme Disease the most prevalent?

In the New England area

41

What bacteria is responsible for Lyme's disease?

Borrelia bergdorferi; spirochetes

42

How is Lyme disease transmitted?

through tick bites; baby ticks

43

What kind of rash shows up in 75% of patients diagnosed with Lyme's disease?

a bulls eye rash

44

What are some of the many symptoms that Lyme's disease can cause?

bulls eye rash, flulike symptoms, later heart problems, neurological symptoms, meningitis, encephalitis, arthritis

45

How can you diagnose Lyme's disease?

PCR test**, Serology, Isolation, a HX of a tick bite

46

What bacteria causes Typhus?

Rickettsia; intracellular obligate parasites

47

Typhus is _________ borne; usually through ticks.

anthropod

48

What bacteria causes Rocky Mountain Spotted fever?

Rickettsia Rickettsii

49

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever causes a rash that is similar to the rash seen in what other disease?

measles

50

What is the vector in Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?

Ticks

51

What is Transovarian passage (as seen in rocky mountain spotted fever)?

how the adult tick passes the disease-causing bacteria to the offspring tick.

52

How can you differentiate between the rash seen in Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and the rash seen in Measles?

In RMSF the rash will be on the palms and soles as well; it won't be on these in measles

53

What are some of the symptoms of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?

rash, fever, headache, kidney and heart failure

54

What is HHV-4?

Epstein-Barr virus (herpes virus)

55

What two cancers can be caused by HHV-4?

1. Burkitt's Lymphoma
2. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

56

Epstein-Barr Virus (HHV-4) can sometimes cause what?

infectious mononucleosis

57

What is the modes of transmission for infectious mono?

kissing*, saliva transfer, drinking

58

In mono, the virus multiplies in what gland?

the parotid gland

59

What are symptoms of mono?

fever, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes

60

In developing countries, __% of children under 4 years old have infectious mono (but are asymptomatic).

90

61

In the USA __% of young adults 15-25 yrs old have infectious mono.

15

62

What is Yellow Fever caused by?

Arbovirus

63

What is the chain of transmission for Yellow Fever?

mosquitoes-->monkeys-->man

64

What happens to cause jaundice in Yellow Fever?

the liver cells destruct.

65

Where is Yellow Fever often found?

in the tropics

66

What is Hantavirus?

severe pneumonia; flooding of the lungs with fluid.

67

Dengue Fever

mosquito borne; transovarian virus passage; can cause Dengue hemmorhagic fever

68

What is Toxoplasmosis caused by?

the protozoa Toxoplasma gondii

69

What is the mode of transmission for Toxoplasmosis?

The protozoa is found in cat feces

70

Who is Toxoplasmosis particularly dangerous for?

Pregnant women; can cause congenital infection to fetus leading to severe brain damage, blindness, and death

71

What is the cause of American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease)?

Trypanosoma cruzi

72

What are reservoirs for American Trypanosomiasis?

rodents, possums, armadillos

73

What is the vector in American Trypanosomiasis?

the kissing bug

74

What are the 4 parasites cause Malaria?

1. Plasmodium falciparum
2. P. vivex
3. P. Malariae
4. P. ovale

75

What is the vector in Malaria?

mosquito

76

What are symptoms of Malaria?

chills, fever, vomiting, headache