Flashcards in Chapter 23 Deck (76):
Septicemia can be caused by both ____ and ____ bacteria.
In Septicemia, the Gram - bacteria can produce what toxin?
In Septicemia, why does the doctor need to know whether the bacteria is gram - or gram +?
In order to determine whether antibiotics will help or worsen the symptoms. (Will worsen if it is gram - as the endotoxins produced can lead to shock, if antibiotics are given)
What is Puerperal Sepsis?
Sepsis can cause a bacterial infection within the inner lining of the heart and can lead to destruction of the heart valves. What is this condition called?
Bacterial Endocarditis has what kind of bacteria?
Gram - ; can produce endotoxins
What does Rheumatic fever cause?
arthritis in older people
What bacteria is responsible for Tuleremia?
Francicella tuleresisis; a gram - rod
If Francicella tulerosisis gets into your lungs it takes what form?
pneumonic form, which is the most dangerous
What is the main reservoir for Tuleremia?
There is a __% fatality rate if Tuleremia goes untreated.
Brucellosis is made up of gram __ rods.
What are the 3 species in Brucellosis?
1. Brucella abortus (cows)
2. B. melitensis (goats)
3. B. suis (soil)
What is the most common of the 3 species in Brucellosis?
What is the most common mode of transmission for Brucellosis?
ingesting unpasteurized milk
What is the most serious of the 3 species in Brucellosis?
B. Melitensis; causes undulant fever
Anthrax is caused by what bacteria?
Bacillus anthracis; a Gram + sporing rod
What is the main reservoir for Anthrax?
What are the modes of transmission for Anthrax?
inhalation, skin contact, ingestion (which can lead to septicemia)
Bacillus anthracis have __________, which make them very difficult to kill.
Bacillus anthracis produce ________, making them lethal.
Is there a vaccine for Anthrax?
yes; however most treatments are not very effective
What bacteria is responsible for Gangrene?
Clostridium perfringens (mostly) ; gram + sporing rods
How is most Gangrene gotten?
What are some of the treatments for Gangrene?
surgical debridement, antibiotics, oxygen chamber, amputation
How is Pasteurella multocida gotten?
through dog or cat bites
Is Pasteurella multocida found in humans?
No, not unless it was given by an animal bite
Cat Scratch Disease is caused by what bacteria?
What bacteria is responsible for the Plague?
What is Yersinia pestes?
An enterobacteria, gram - rod, causes the plague
What is the main reservoir for the Plague?
What is the vector used in the transmission of the Plague (Yersinia pestes)?
What is the mode of transmission for the Plague bacteria (Yersinia pestes)?
What are the two types of the Plague?
1. Bubonic Plague
2. Pneumonic Plague
What two things do you need to know about the Bubonic Plague?
1. It is in the Lymph Nodes
2. Has a 50-75% mortality rate
What two things do you need to know about the Pneumonic Plague?
1. Causes Pneumonia
2. Has a 100% mortality rate if untreated
What two things are done to diagnose the Plague bacteria?
1. Isolate the bacteria
2. IFA test
How can you control the spread of the Plague bacteria, Yersinia pestes?
sanitation, rat control, rat flea control
What year was Lyme Disease discovered?
Where is Lyme Disease the most prevalent?
In the New England area
What bacteria is responsible for Lyme's disease?
Borrelia bergdorferi; spirochetes
How is Lyme disease transmitted?
through tick bites; baby ticks
What kind of rash shows up in 75% of patients diagnosed with Lyme's disease?
a bulls eye rash
What are some of the many symptoms that Lyme's disease can cause?
bulls eye rash, flulike symptoms, later heart problems, neurological symptoms, meningitis, encephalitis, arthritis
How can you diagnose Lyme's disease?
PCR test**, Serology, Isolation, a HX of a tick bite
What bacteria causes Typhus?
Rickettsia; intracellular obligate parasites
Typhus is _________ borne; usually through ticks.
What bacteria causes Rocky Mountain Spotted fever?
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever causes a rash that is similar to the rash seen in what other disease?
What is the vector in Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?
What is Transovarian passage (as seen in rocky mountain spotted fever)?
how the adult tick passes the disease-causing bacteria to the offspring tick.
How can you differentiate between the rash seen in Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and the rash seen in Measles?
In RMSF the rash will be on the palms and soles as well; it won't be on these in measles
What are some of the symptoms of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?
rash, fever, headache, kidney and heart failure
What is HHV-4?
Epstein-Barr virus (herpes virus)
What two cancers can be caused by HHV-4?
1. Burkitt's Lymphoma
2. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Epstein-Barr Virus (HHV-4) can sometimes cause what?
What is the modes of transmission for infectious mono?
kissing*, saliva transfer, drinking
In mono, the virus multiplies in what gland?
the parotid gland
What are symptoms of mono?
fever, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes
In developing countries, __% of children under 4 years old have infectious mono (but are asymptomatic).
In the USA __% of young adults 15-25 yrs old have infectious mono.
What is Yellow Fever caused by?
What is the chain of transmission for Yellow Fever?
What happens to cause jaundice in Yellow Fever?
the liver cells destruct.
Where is Yellow Fever often found?
in the tropics
What is Hantavirus?
severe pneumonia; flooding of the lungs with fluid.
mosquito borne; transovarian virus passage; can cause Dengue hemmorhagic fever
What is Toxoplasmosis caused by?
the protozoa Toxoplasma gondii
What is the mode of transmission for Toxoplasmosis?
The protozoa is found in cat feces
Who is Toxoplasmosis particularly dangerous for?
Pregnant women; can cause congenital infection to fetus leading to severe brain damage, blindness, and death
What is the cause of American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease)?
What are reservoirs for American Trypanosomiasis?
rodents, possums, armadillos
What is the vector in American Trypanosomiasis?
the kissing bug
What are the 4 parasites cause Malaria?
1. Plasmodium falciparum
2. P. vivex
3. P. Malariae
4. P. ovale
What is the vector in Malaria?