Chapter 17 Homework 14 Star stuff Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17 Homework 14 Star stuff Deck (51)
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1

The following figures show various stages during the life of a star with the same mass as the Sun. Rank the stages based on when they occur, from first to last.

Contracting cloud of gas and dust
protostar
main sequence g star
red giant
planetary nebula
white dwarf

Contracting cloud of gas and dust
protostar
main sequence g star
red giant
planetary nebula
white dwarf

2

How do the properties of long-lived stars compare to those of short-lived stars?
Check all that apply.

Long-lived stars begin their lives with more mass and a larger amount of hydrogen fuel.
Long-lived stars begin their lives with less mass and a smaller amount of hydrogen fuel.
Long-lived stars are more luminous during their main-sequence lives.
Long-lived stars are less luminous during their main-sequence lives.

Long-lived stars begin their lives with less mass and a smaller amount of hydrogen fuel.
Long-lived stars are less luminous during their main-sequence lives.

3

A main-sequence star twice as massive as the Sun would last __________.

about half as long as the Sun
much less than half as long as the Sun
about twice as long as the Sun
much longer than twice as long as the Sun

much less than half as long as the Sun

4

If stars A and B are both main-sequence stars and star A has a greater fusion rate than star B, which of the following statements hold(s)?
Check all that apply.

Star A must be more luminous than star B.
Star A must be less luminous than star B.
Star A must be more massive than star B.
Star A must be less massive than star B.

Star A must be more luminous than star B.
Star A must be more massive than star B.

5

Provided following are various stages during the life of a high-mass star. Rank the stages based on when they occur, from first to last.

contracting cloud of gas and dust
protostar
main sequence o star
red supergiant
supernova
neutron star

contracting cloud of gas and dust
protostar
main sequence o star
red supergiant
supernova
neutron star

6

Provided following are various elements that can be produced during fusion in the core of a high mass main sequence star. Rank these elements based on when they are produced, from first to last.

helium
carbon
oxygen
iron

helium
carbon
oxygen
iron

7

Listed following are characteristics that describe either high-mass or low-mass stars. Match these characteristics to the appropriate category. High Mass Stars

have higher fusion rate during main sequence life.
late in life fuse carbon into heavier elements.
end life as a supernova.
have longer lifetimes.
the sun is an example.
end life as a planetary nebula.
final corpse is a white dwarf.

have higher fusion rate during main sequence life.
late in life fuse carbon into heavier elements.
end life as a supernova.

8

Listed following are characteristics that describe either high-mass or low-mass stars. Match these characteristics to the appropriate category. Low Mass Stars

have higher fusion rate during main sequence life.
late in life fuse carbon into heavier elements.
end life as a supernova.
have longer lifetimes.
the sun is an example.
end life as a planetary nebula.
final corpse is a white dwarf.

have longer lifetimes.
the sun is an example.
end life as a planetary nebula.
final corpse is a white dwarf.

9

The Crab Nebula is the result of a ______ that was witnessed on Earth in the year 1054.

Supernova

10

Betelgeuse is a supergiant star that will eventually supernova, which means that by mass it is classified as a _______

High mass star

11

The debris from the death of a high-mass star forms a __________ several light years across.

supernova remnant

12

A ______ has a density higher than the density of a white dwarf.

Neutron Star

13

_________ actually occurred about 150,000 years ago in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

Supernova 1987A

14

The ______ is the process by which hydrogen fusion proceeds in high-mass stars.

CNO cycle

15

Carbon can be converted into oxygen in the cores of high-mass stars if carbon nuclei undergo a _______________.

Helium-capture reaction

16

Which of the following stars will live longest?

4 solar mass star.
3 solar-mass star
1 solar-mass star
2 solar-mass star

1 solar-mass star

17

In the context of understanding stellar lives, "high-mass" stars have masses______________.

more than about 3 times the mass of our Sun
greater than all stars, since all stars are far more massive than planets
more than about 8 times the mass of our Sun
the same as our Sun

more than about 8 times the mass of our Sun

18

Which of the following lists the stages of life for a low-mass star in the correct order?

protostar, main-sequence star, red giant, planetary nebula, white dwarf
protostar, main-sequence star, red giant, supernova, neutron star
main-sequence star, white dwarf, red giant, planetary nebula, protostar
protostar, main-sequence star, planetary nebula, red giant

protostar, main-sequence star, red giant, planetary nebula, white dwarf

19

What happens when a main-sequence star exhausts its core hydrogen fuel supply?

The core immediately begins to fuse its helium into carbon.
The star becomes a neutron star.
The core shrinks while the rest of the star expands.
The entire star shrinks in size.

The core shrinks while the rest of the star expands.

20

The main source of energy for a star as it grows in size to become a red giant is ______.

helium fusion in the central core
hydrogen fusion in a shell surrounding the central core
gravitational contraction
hydrogen fusion in the central core

hydrogen fusion in a shell surrounding the central core

21

The overall helium fusion reaction is:

Three helium nuclei fuse to form one carbon nucleus.
Two helium nuclei fuse to form one beryllium nucleus.
Two hydrogen nuclei fuse to form one helium nucleus.
Four helium nuclei fuse to form one oxygen nucleus.

Three helium nuclei fuse to form one carbon nucleus.

22

What is a helium flash?

The ignition of helium shell burning in a high-mass star with a carbon core.
It is another name for the helium fusion reaction.
The sudden onset of helium fusion in the core of a low-mass star.
A sudden brightening of a low-mass star, detectable from Earth by observing spectral lines of helium.

The sudden onset of helium fusion in the core of a low-mass star.

23

An H-R diagram for a globular cluster will show a horizontal branch - a line of stars above the main-sequence but to the left of the subgiants and red giants. Which of the following statements about these horizontal branch stars is true?

They have inert (non-burning) carbon cores.
They generate energy through both hydrogen fusion and helium fusion.
Their sole source of energy is hydrogen shell burning.
In a particular star cluster, all horizontal branch stars have the same spectral type.

They generate energy through both hydrogen fusion and helium fusion.

24

What is a planetary nebula?

Interstellar gas from which planets are likely to form in the not-too-distant future.
Gas ejected from a low-mass star in the final stage of its life.
Gas created from the remains of planets that once orbited a dead star.
The remains of a high-mass star that has exploded.

Gas ejected from a low-mass star in the final stage of its life.

25

The ultimate fate of our Sun is to _____.

explode in a supernova
become a black hole
become a white dwarf that will slowly cool with time
become a rapidly spinning neutron star

become a white dwarf that will slowly cool with time

26

Which low-mass star does not have fusion occurring in its central core?

a red giant
a main sequence star
a helium burning star
a main sequence star in a binary star system

a red giant

27

How are low-mass red giant stars important to our existence?

These stars manufactured most of the carbon atoms in our bodies.
These stars manufactured virtually all the elements out of which we and our planet are made.
These stars generate the energy that makes life on Earth possible.
These stars provide most of the light that reaches us from globular clusters.

These stars manufactured most of the carbon atoms in our bodies.

28

Which of the following pairs of atomic nuclei would feel the strongest repulsive electromagnetic force if you tried to push them together?

hydrogen and deuterium
hydrogen and hydrogen
helium and helium
hydrogen and helium

helium and helium

29

Which of the following stars will certainly end its life in a supernova?

the Sun
a red giant star
a neutron star
a 10 solar mass star

a 10 solar mass star

30

What is the CNO cycle?

a set of steps by which four hydrogen nuclei fuse into one helium nucleus
the set of fusion reactions that have produced all the carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in the universe
the process by which helium is fused into carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen
the process by which carbon is fused into nitrogen and oxygen

a set of steps by which four hydrogen nuclei fuse into one helium nucleus