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1

Most of the charged particles from the Sun are deflected around Earth by the?

Magnetosphere

2

Earth's _____ absorbs most of the ultraviolet light arriving here from the Sun.

Stratosphere

3

Most of the X-rays coming from the Sun are absorbed in the ______

Thermosphere

4

Gas particles in Earth's atmosphere most easily escape from the____

Exosphere

5

The densest layer of the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars is the ______

Troposphere

6

Which of the following is NOT a major pattern of motion in the solar system?

A. Most of the solar systems large moons orbit in their planets equatorial plane.
B. All of the planets orbit the Sun in the same direction - counterclockwise as viewed from above Earths north pole
C. Nearly all comets orbit the Sun in the same direction and roughly the same plane.
D. The sun and most of the planets rotate in the same direction in which the planets orbit the Sun.

C. Nearly all comets orbit the Sun in the same direction and roughly the same plane.

7

Which of the following is not a major difference between the terrestrial and jovian planets in our solar system?

A. Terrestrial planets are higher in average density than jovian planets.
B. Terrestrial planets orbit much closer to the Sun than jovian planets.
C.Jovian planets have rings and terrestrial planets do not.
D.Terrestrial planets contain large quantities of ice and jovian planets do not.

D.Terrestrial planets contain large quantities of ice and jovian planets do not.

8

Consider the following statement: "Rocky asteroids are found primarily in the asteroid belt and Kuiper belt while
icy comets are found primarily in the Oort cloud." What's wrong with this statement?

A. Comets are not really icy.
B. Asteroids are not really made of rock.
C. The Oort cloud has nothing to do with comets.
D. The Kuiper belt contains icy comets, not rocky asteroids.
E. The statement is accurate as written.

D. The Kuiper belt contains icy comets, not rocky asteroids.

9

Which of the following is not a real difference between asteroids and comets?

A. It is thought that comets are far more numerous than asteroids.
B. Asteroids are made mostly of rock and comets are made mostly of ice.
C. Most asteroids are located much nearer to the Sun than most comets.
D. Asteroids orbit the Sun while comets just float randomly around in the Oort cloud.

D. Asteroids orbit the Sun while comets just float randomly around in the Oort cloud.

10

The following statements are all true. Which one counts as an "exception to the rule" in being unusual for our solar system?

A. The diameter of Earth's Moon is about 1/4 that of Earth.
B. Jupiter has a very small axis tilt.
C. Saturn has no solid surface.
D. Venus does not have a moon.

A. The diameter of Earth's Moon is about 1/4 that of Earth.

11

Compared to the distance between Earth and Mars, the distance between Jupiter and Saturn is ______.

A. much smaller
B. much larger
C. about the same
D. just slightly less

B. much larger

12

How is Einstein's famous equation, E=mc2, important in understanding the Sun?

A. It explains why the Sun has a magnetic field strong enough influence the atmospheres of the planets.
B. It explains why the Sun is so massive.
C. It explains the fact that the Sun generates energy to shine by losing some 4 million tons of mass each second.
D. It explains why the Sun's surface temperature is about 6,000°C.

C. It explains the fact that the Sun generates energy to shine by losing some 4 million tons of mass each second.

13

Venus has a higher average surface temperature than Mercury. Why?

A. Because its surface is covered with hot lava from numerous active volcanoes.
B. Because it is closer to the Sun.
C. Because its slow rotation gives it more time to heat up in sunlight.
D. Because its surface is heated by an extreme greenhouse effect.

D. Because its surface is heated by an extreme greenhouse effect.

14

In what way is Venus most similar to Earth?

A. Both planets have warm days and cool nights.
B. Both planets have similar surface geology.
C. Both planets are nearly the same size.
D. Both planets have very similar atmospheres.

C. Both planets are nearly the same size.

15

Which of the following statements about the object called Eris is not true?

A. It lies well beyond Pluto and Neptune.
B. It is slightly larger in mass than Pluto.
C. It is thought to be the first example of a new class of object.
D. It orbits the Sun in the same general direction as the planets.

C. It is thought to be the first example of a new class of object.

16

Mars has two moons that are most similar in character to:

A. Earth's Moon
B. comets.
C. small asteroids
D. particles in the rings of Saturn

C. small asteroids

17

Imagine that an alien spaceship crashed onto Earth. Which statement would most likely be true?

A. All the evidence of the crash would be quickly whisked off by the U.S. military to Area 51 in Nevada.
B. The crash would create a noticeable crater.
C. It would crash in the ocean.
D. The aliens' home world is another planet in our own solar system.

C. It would crash in the ocean.

18

Which planet listed below has the most extreme seasons?

A. Jupiter
B. Mars
C. Uranus
D. Earth

C. Uranus

19

In what way is Pluto more like a comet than a planet?

A. It has moons.
B. It sometimes enters the inner solar system.
C. It is made mostly of rock and ice.
D. It has a long tail.

C. It is made mostly of rock and ice.

20

Why was it advantageous for the Voyager mission to consist of flybys rather than orbiters?

A. It was easier for data to be radioed back to Earth with flybys than orbiters.
B. Flyby spacecraft can get closer to a planet than an orbiting spacecraft.
C. Spacecraft making flybys can return to Earth more quickly than orbiters.
D. Each individual spacecraft was able to visit more than one planet.

D. Each individual spacecraft was able to visit more than one planet.

21

Why has NASA sent recent orbiters to Mars (such as Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) on trajectories that required them to skim through Mars's atmosphere before settling into their final orbits?

A. It allowed the orbiters to get higher resolution pictures of the surface as it came close when skimming through the atmosphere.
B. It allowed the spacecraft to collect samples of the atmospheric gas for return to Earth.
C.Each spacecraft also carried a lander, and the lander could only be dropped to the Martian surface when the spacecraft passed through the atmosphere.
D. It saves money because the spacecraft uses atmospheric drag to slow down rather than needing to carry enough fuel to slow by firing rocket engines.

D. It saves money because the spacecraft uses atmospheric drag to slow down rather than needing to carry enough fuel to slow by firing rocket engines.

22

In essence, the nebular theory holds that _________.

A. our solar system formed from the collapse of an interstellar cloud of gas and dust
B. the planets each formed from the collapse of its own separate nebula
C. nebulae are clouds of gas and dust in space
D. The nebular theory is a discarded idea that imagined planets forming as a result of a near-collision between our Sun and another star.

A. our solar system formed from the collapse of an interstellar cloud of gas and dust

23

According to modern science, what was the approximate chemical composition of the solar nebula?

A. Roughly equal proportions of hydrogen, helium, water, and methane.
B. 50% hydrogen and helium, 50% everything else
C. 98% hydrogen and helium, 2% everything else
D. 98% hydrogen, 2% helium

C. 98% hydrogen and helium, 2% everything else

24

According to our present theory of solar system formation, which of the following lists the major ingredients of the solar nebula in order from the most abundant to the least abundant?

A. hydrogen and helium gas; hydrogen compounds; rock; metal.
B. hydrogen and helium gas; rock; metal.hydrogen compounds
C. hydrogen, water, methane, helium
D. hydrogen compounds; hydrogen and helium gas; metal; rock

A. hydrogen and helium gas; hydrogen compounds; rock; metal.

25

Which of the following types of material can condense into what we call ice at low temperatures?

A. rock
B. hydrogen and helium
C. hydrogen compounds
D. metal

C. hydrogen compounds

26

What do we mean by the frost line when we discuss the formation of planets in the solar nebula?

A. It is another way of stating the temperature at which water freezes into ice.
B. It marks the special distance from the Sun at which hydrogen compounds become abundant; closer to the Sun, there are no hydrogen compounds.
C. It is the altitude in a planet's atmosphere at which snow can form.
D. It is a circle at a particular distance from the Sun, beyond which the temperature was low enough for ices to condense.

D. It is a circle at a particular distance from the Sun, beyond which the temperature was low enough for ices to condense.

27

What do we mean by accretion in the context of planet formation?

A. The formation of moons around planets
B. The solidification of ices, rocks, and metal from the gas of the solar nebular
C. The growth of the Sun as the density of gas increased in the center of the solar nebula
D. The growth of planetesimals from smaller solid particles that collided and stuck together

D. The growth of planetesimals from smaller solid particles that collided and stuck together

28

According to our theory of solar system formation, what are asteroids and comets?

A. The shattered remains of collisions between planets
B. Leftover planetesimals that never accreted into planets
C. Chunks of rock or ice that condensed after the planets and moons finished forming
D. Chunks of rock or ice that were expelled from planets by volcanoes

B. Leftover planetesimals that never accreted into planets

29

According to our theory of solar system formation, where did the comets of the Oort cloud form?

A. in the inner solar system.
B. in the asteroid belt.
C. in the region of the jovian planets
D. far beyond the orbit of Pluto

C. in the region of the jovian planets

30

What is the giant impact hypothesis for the origin of the Moon?

A. The Moon originally was about the same size as Earth, but a giant impact blasted most of it away so that it ended up much smaller than Earth.
B. The Moon formed from material blasted out of the Earth's mantle and crust by the impact of a Mars size object.
C. The Moon formed just like the Earth, from accretion in the solar nebula.
D. The Moon formed when two gigantic asteroids collided with one another.

B. The Moon formed from material blasted out of the Earth's mantle and crust by the impact of a Mars size object.